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Morphine: Anagesic And Narcotic Analysis

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The humanity has been using alkaloids-containing extracts since ancient times. For example, there are reports on the use of opium since 3,400 BC. Opium (from Papaver somniferum) exudate is rich in tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, as (5), codeine (6), and papaverine (7) (ref). Morphine is a potent analgesic and narcotic extensively used to treat both acute and chronic severe pain (Bercovitch et al., 1999). South American Indians have been using coca leaves (Erytrothroxylon coca; Erythroxylaceae) for over 4,000 years (ref), as a stimulant and energy source. Coca is known for its psychoactive alkaloid cocaine (8), whose medicinal use as tonic, for digestive disorders, weakness, aphrodisiac, in the treatment of asthma, alcohol and morphine

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