Global business today is subject to various kinds of risks. One risk that global business needs to handle is the foreign exchange risk. Foreign exchange risk is the risk when companies face a potential gain or loss due to the fluctuation of an exchange rate change. Companies can be subject to a significant financial loss, even with a small change in the exchange rate. Thus, the primary purpose of managing foreign exchange risk is to mitigate potential currency losses. There are at least three strategies companies use to manage their foreign exchange risk. They are forward contracts, currency swaps and “natural” hedges. Companies like Airbus, Tohoku Electric Power Company and Toyota utilized these strategies to reduce potential currency losses.
Exchange rate risk, also called as ‘currency risk’ is the risk arising from currency fluctuations. Volatile exchange rates can reduce cost and productivity advantages gained over years of hard work. Firms exposed to international economy face this risk. When a firm has already committed to a foreign currency denominated transaction, the firm is exposed to a exchange rate risk. The firm will incur a
General Motors was the world’s largest automaker and, since 1931, the world’s sales leader. In 2001, GM had unit sales of 8.5 million vehicles and a 15.1% worldwide market share. Founded in 1908, GM had manufacturing operations in more than 30 countries, and its vehicles were sold in approximately 200 countries. In 2000, it generated earnings of $4.4 billion on sales of $184.6 billion. The company is trying to accurately calculate the risk of a potential devaluation to the ARS. In doing so the company had to decide between two options on how to proceed; was it worth the costs to increase the size of GM’s hedge position beyond the standard policy or should GM Argentina rely on other approaches to cope with the expected
The biggest threat for the company can be the currency fluctuation, that means not stability in their profits , so as a result of fluctuation there can be the rising of interest rates and an increase of the company’s income.
When an input (machinery, components, capital, labor, etc.) is denominated in a foreign currency, the risk exists that an unfavorable exchange rate movement will increase the cost of doing business. When the products are priced and sold in a foreign currency, an adverse exchange rate movement will make the product appear more expensive to consumers, decreasing demand or forcing the company to reduce its own profit margin to maintain lower price levels. For companies with integrated international business systems, an exchange rate shock can literally force them out of business, with their operations experiencing pressures from both cost and profit centers.
The economy exchange rate: If a start-up business buying products from abroad, than the exchange rate will impacts on the piece of goods. This will affect a start-up business because if the exchange rates are like 2 Euros to the £1 than they will make profit but if the exchange rate is like 1 Euros to the £1 than they won’t be able to make profit.
Foreign exchange risk consists of three main types of exposures. First, transaction exposure is when a firm has a contractual obligation under which it supposed to receive or pay a certain amount in a currency that is different than its home currency. Transaction exposure has an effect of the firm’s income statement because the accounts payables or receivables can be affected by currency exchange rates. Second foreign exchange exposure is the translation which impacts the balance sheet of the firm. It occurs when consolidating financial statements of foreign units into a company’s home currency. The third type of foreign exchange exposure is the economic which influences a firm’s cash flows when exchange rates change. This type of exposure can impact assets, liabilities, or any type of anticipated foreign currency cash exchange.
There is also risk of volatility with respect to exchange rates in the short and long term
Risk result from foreign exchange and politics, while opportunities arise from unexploited markets thereby more revenues. Foreign exchange risks occur due to fluctuations in the value of investment brought about by changes in the exchange rates. If the Euro appreciates against the dollar, the profits Tyson Foods would earn in Portugal will decrease when exchanged back to the dollar. Tyson Foods would thus be unable to protect itself against this kind of fluctuations which make the exchange rate volatile thereby harming revenues and sales.
Currency risks are majorly involved with expanding into foreign markets. Due to the fluctuations of exchange rates, apples profits can vary due to demand and supply. The value of a currency is varied due to currency depreciation and appreciation and this fluctuation and
Exhibit 7 from the case study describes the currency development in medium term of the GBP and EURO against the dollar. We can observe that the currencies are exposed to high volatility, which means the company may register greater risk
Nestlé S.A. is a Swiss company and owns a prestigious position being the world’s leading nutrition, health and wellness group (Nestlé, 2016). According to its annual report (2015), this company is exposed to many risks caused by movements in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rate and market prices. The foreign exchange risk comes from transactions and translations of foreign operations in Swiss Francs (CHF). The interest rate risk faces the borrowings at fixed and variable rates. The market price risk comes from commodity price and equity price. The former risk arises from world commodity market for the supplies of coffee, cocoa beans, sugar and others. The later risk arises from the fluctuations of the prices of investments held. (Nestle annual reports, 2015). Thus, financial derivatives instruments are used by this multinational corporation in order to hedge these risks.
Aspen has become a public company with more risk adverse investors who want to invest in the core business of the firm and not assume any foreign exchange risk. Foreign exchange risk is a core risk to Aspen’s business because they have many customers outside of the United States. We believe that transferring this risk to the customers would limit Aspen’s growth on the foreign markets: Aspen should keep its current marketing strategy, which includes credit installment payments and payments in local currencies for Japan, the UK and Germany. The current risk management program hurts the company because it doesnot consider Aspen’s expenses abroad that balance sales exposures to currency fluctuations. We then recommend that