Nuclear Transport And Its Effect On Breast Cancer Tumor Cells

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Nuclear transport is the method by which large molecules enter and exit the cell nucleus through nuclear pore complexes. Small molecules however do not require much regulation. This method of transport and translocation provides an understanding of various protein movement between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of the cell. The hundreds of nuclear transport pathways allow for the study and mechanistic view of nuclear transport’s role in the onset as well as expression of multiple diseases; breast cancer being one in particular. Various nuclear transport pathways play an important role in the progression and suppression of breast cancer tumor cells. Proteins and enzymes that propagate these pathways can lead to cell proliferation or inhibition of the invasive and metastatic behavior of breast cancer advancement. A further look at these pathways will aid in the understanding of breast cancer tumor cells. Nuclear localization sequences or NLS, is a necessary component of nuclear transport. It is an amino acid sequence that will “tag” a protein for import. By disrupting this sequence, the way a protein is imported is altered and can lead to numerous defects. Where it may localize can change the functionality of the protein. This can be seen in the case of spleen tyrosine kinase, Syk. Spleen tyrosine kinase is “a candidate tumor (metastasis) suppressor that is highly expressed in mammary epithelial cells” (Wang). Lei Wang and associates looked at two different variants of Syk;

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