As the world continues to grow connections among its states, constructivism gains credibility as the most fitting theory to describe international relations and world politics. Realism and liberalism, in their polarizing thoughts, cannot account for the several existing realms of ideas in the modern world. A changing world can best be attributed to a theory such a constructivism, which explores the evolution of human thought in the context of global politics.
There are gaps in the theory of Realism, one of them being that Realists argue States are the most important actors in an international system, but there are also non-state actors who do not hold any power, and are still able to display that power. This aspect refutes the
Hans Morgenthau, a philosopher of realist thought, believed individual states to be the most important actors on the international stage. He argues that states are self-interested forces constantly vying with other states for dominance; that they’re vying with them for power. Power refers to “anything that establishes and maintains the control of man over man.” States are consistently consumed with the process of maintaining the power they already have and acquiring more. In Politics Among Nations, Morgenthau
In an effort to bring an end to world poverty the World Bank and IMF (International Monetary Fund) were established in 1944. Consisting of members from 44 nations “The Bank and the IMF are twin intergovernmental pillars supporting the structure of the world's economic and financial order”(Driscoll, 1996). In other words they are international economic organizations that grant loans to third world countries for development programs.
Far from being seen as objective entities, the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and World Bank are often conceptualized as instruments of the developed world. It is alleged that they are used to enforce crippling economic policies upon the developing world. To some extent, it is perhaps inevitable that these international institutions are seen as such. The memory of colonial exploitation in Latin America, Africa, and other developing nations runs deep, and the power dynamic of these institutions relative to the nations they are ostensibly helping often echoes the relationship of the colonizing to the colonized.
To what extent do organizations like the IMF, WTO, and World Bank challenge the nation state’s ability to shape domestic economic and social policy? This should not be a paper about the history of these organizations.
The claims that within the EU there is a democratic deficit, because there are extensive powers being accumulated by institutions that appear to lack a satisfactory level of legitimacy, are cogent. The question of is there a democratic deficit within the EU, despite having dominated many political debates since the 70s, is prominent in today 's society now more than ever as a result of the UKs decision to leave the union, consequently causing the world to develop an growing interest in the European Union and its qualities. Despite being a relatively common question, it is important to understand exactly what the EU is and what is meant by the term ‘democratic deficit’. The European Union was formed after World War 2 and stands today as a politico-economic Union made up of 28 countries who exercise their power over European institutions and operate as a single market for trade allowing for the free movement of goods, services, capital and people between member states. More so, the term democratic deficit in relation to the EU refers to the belief that not all European citizens are equally represented politically by the government responsible for doing so and questioning the legitimacy of those within the EU with power.
The European Union 's success owes much to the unusual way in which it works. Unusual because the EU is not a federation like the United States; nor is it simply an organisation for cooperation between governments, like the United Nations. It is, in
The increasing weight of the Union since its creation in 1951 has elevated the community to the international stage as an indubitable power and encouraged the debate about the characterization of the EU, fostered by the involvement from European political science scholars. Scholars have came up with a "sui generis" definition of the EU in the sense that it neither is an intergovernmental organization nor a federal state.4 Still, the novelty of the Union does not bound itself to the definition of the nature of European institutional set-up. Indeed, the discussion between scholars goes further towards the characterization of the European power.
The EU has often been indicted with having a ‘democratic deficit’ due to its supposed lack of adherence to democratic principles. In order to determine whether this is true, and the European Union is democratic enough, it is necessary to establish the meaning of the word ‘democratic.’ Democracy can mean different things in various contexts, often depending on the socioeconomic situation, political policies and structures of the country in question. However, Schmitter and Karl describe democracy as ‘a system of governance in which rulers are held accountable for their actions in the public realm by citizens.’ Beetham segregates the ideas of ‘political equality’ and ‘popular control’ whilst others such as Lively have asserted that
Since the World Bank’s inception, it has changed from an organization dedicated to wartime recovery to one focused on a variety of projects, including HIV/AIDS treatment, environmental protection, and other methods of to improve quality of life. However, its growth as an international organization has not been without controversy. There have been criticisms regarding its leadership and its practice of loan giving. While the public face of this institution says it is dedicated to improving the quality of life of the impoverished, its actions run counter and have even resulted in economic, social, and environmental degradation. Instead, the World Bank has become another politicized tool for powerful countries to exert its influence on other countries. The World Bank has changed for the worst in its mission to improve international quality of life; however, this can be rectified by increased cooperation between the World Bank and loan acceptors.
An examination of the record of IMF and World Bank performance in developing countries shows that, far from being the solution to global economic instability and poverty, these two international institutions are a major problem. For one thing, their lending practice deters growth because the money they loan removes incentives for governments to advance economic freedom, and breeds corruption. For these reasons, the vast majority of recipient countries have been unable to develop fully after depending on these institutions for over 40 years.
It is difficult to ascertain whether or not the European Union is democratically legitimate on the basis that the concept of democracy appears to be evolving over time. The fact that the European Union is a unique entity, a ‘supernatural union of sovereign states’ also makes it difficult to establish whether it is in fact truly democratic as there is no other entity to compare it to. The common conception is that there are two primary types of democracy. Direct democracy, where by the citizens of the state have the law making power and representative democracy, in which the power of the people is delegated to elected representatives. Article 2 of the TEU provides that the European Union is “founded on the values of respect for human
When it comes to the political set up of the international organizations that positively and negatively affects poorer nations can be classified in realist’s point of view as powerful nations lobbying the international organizations to pass their agenda that affects smaller countries in the interests of promoting national hegemonic power. As a results, of this, regardless of the debts accumulated by powerful international organization’s veto power, they are still on top of the average poor nation because of its political hegemonic power and influence over International Organizations. The economic policies set by hegemonic powers to be passed down to the small nations by the international organizations sometimes keep them on the hook of a
The European Union (EU) was 'founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law'. Democracy can be interpreted in different ways, for it means "the power of the people" where the public decide who they want as they leader by a majority vote system who represents the views of the people. Lisbon Treaty gave these rights the force of law therefore these rights are not to be violated by member states and must maintain a healthy baseline of democracy. Many academics have argued that the EU is suffering from a 'democratic deficit' due to the Euopean not having enough power and for other reasons which will be discussed. I will discuss the observation of Joseph Weilers 'standard version' of the democratic deficit and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of his argument. This essay will examine the reasons why many academics and authors believe there is a democratic deficit. Further discussions will point to renowned intellectuals who reject the idea of democratic deficit , such as Professor Andrew Moravcsik and Proffesor Giandomencio Majone who both refute the idea that the EU lacks democratic accountability- for different reason which will be discussed in detail. My conclusion will include my belief that the EU does suffer from a democratic deficit and this will be supported by the powerful evidence that will be stated throughout this essay.