PAIND Pain Assessment

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People with advanced dementia are unable to communicate pain levels and the Pain assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) scale can assist in determining pain levels in individuals with cognitive impairment.

Jack has advanced Alzheimer’s disease (AD) stage, which is a neurogenerative disorder with cerebral cortex atrophy from neurons and synapses loss (de Tommaso, Kunz & Valeraini, 2017). Common symptoms include memory and language deficits, orientation problems, mood changes and unable to perform activities of daily living (Kilmova & Kuca, 2016). Jack is non-fluent, has comprehension difficulties and unable to verbally express himself (Kilmova & Kuca, 2016) Research has shown residents with poor mobility generally have a high occurrence of pain and there is an interaction between pain, cognitive impairment and behavioural disturbances (Miu, & Chan, 2014). Consequently, Jack after his fall three months ago, may be being resistance to staff due to pain. David is concerned about his dad’s behavioural change and wondering if pain is the cause.

The PAINAD …show more content…

The staff add a score to each assigned behaviour observed for a total score. A total score, ranges from zero to ten based on score of zero for five items and a higher score designates severe pain. (Hadjistavropoulos et al, 2014; Paulson et al., 2014). After each use the staff need to compare to previous score and one- two hours after a pain intervention to evaluate effectiveness of pain intervention (Hadjistavropoulos et al, 2014; Paulson et al., 2014). Also, staff need to use the associated user guide that shows instructions, items definitions and should be reviewed before using PAINAD (Herr et al,

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