Although a vast increase has been seen in the enactment of pesticide legislation worldwide, it remains absent in approximately a quarter of countries in Africa and the Southeast Asian region . Where present, regulations often lack comprehensiveness and the capacity to enforce these effectively. Conversely, developed nations are increasingly implementing more stringent legislation. Once a hazardous pesticide is imported, it is often difficult or impossible for the national authorities to effectively enforce laws and regulations that would ensure the pesticide will be used only in accordance with the regulatory guidelines.
Pesticides and their alternatives are an undeniable part of modern life, used to protect everything from flower gardens to agricultural crops from specific pests (Saravi & Shokrzadeh, 2011) Pesticides are considered a vital component of modern farming, playing a major role in maintaining high agricultural productivity. Consequently, in high-input intensive agricultural production systems, the widespread use of pesticides to manage pests has emerged as a dominant feature (Saravi & Shokrzadeh, 2011) Pesticides comprise a large number of substances that belong to many different chemical classes, they are applied to crops at various stages of cultivation to provide protection against pests and during post-harvest storage to preserve quality, to ensure the safety of food for consumers and regulate international trade and legislation. Pesticides are considered to be essential for agricultural development; some of them can cause serious ambient contamination, principally in food (Sitta et al., 2000; Gonzalez et al., 2003). This hazard, could be further increased in case of vegetable fruits which are usually consumed freshly e.g. consumed vegetable fruits freshly contaminated with pesticide residues, more than allowable tolerance (Romeh et al., 2000). Various human health related
Agriculture is the most fundamental resource of society. Without it, humans could not live, especially in the ways we do now where people reside in cities. This means that those cities could not exist without large scale agriculture to sustain them. Since agriculture is such a necessity, people have developed methods to gain more from their land. One of the many solutions besides machinery they have developed to produce higher crop yields is through the use of pesticides. However, those pesticides which have resulted in high crop yields have come at price, and that is human health itself. This seems rather contradictory. Pesticides were designed to help people and society by increased the success of producing high crop yields, and they
In order for a pesticide to be approved for use it needs to pass a few tests. The government examines the ingredients to ensure they are within safe boundaries, they also examine which crops and where it would be applied, how much you need to use for it to be effective and how often it needs to be used and also how it must be stored and how it can be disposed of (United states environmental protection agency 2016). With all of these regulations in place, it is extremely rare if not impossible for an unsafe products to pass through
As it happens, the United States has a 18-47% import on their fruits and vegetables from primarily Central and South American countries. In these countries such as Costa Rica and Honduras many of the pesticides that are illegal in the United States are used heavily there. Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide used for bananas that are shipped to the United States by the trillions. It has been known to “harm workers, communities and the environment (Environmental Working Group’s).” Many children were subject to mental retardation and decreased brain function because of the banana farms. This is one example of a pesticide that the United States is indirectly using through Costa Rica in order to avoid the environmental costs of chlorpyrifos on the people and the land. But the problem is not with Costa Rica or the other Central American countries, it’s that we are perfectly capable of growing own own food and are running out of “other ponds” to take advantage
Procedural History: Under the authority of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Federal Insecticides, Fungicides, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), manufacturers were required to register their pesticides. EPA had a “me-too” process that allowed for the pesticide equivalent of generic drugs. Monsanto Corporation sued because EPA was making them publicize trade secrets, which they claimed was a taking. Congress reiterated in Section 3(c)(1)(D)(ii) of FIFRA that EPA should make administrative decisions about how much money these manufacturers would get for damages from loss of their trade secrets. Union Carbide sued because they felt that the decisions should be made by the judicial court, not an administrative agency. The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York held that the claims challenging the arbitration provisions were ripe for decision and that those provisions violated Article III. Standing was approved for all appellants, who took a direct appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court.
Bolivia has doubled the amount of pesticides it imports over the past five years (Langman). Of all the pesticides Bolivia imports inside the country, 30% of it is contraband that is smuggled in illegally (Langman). According to studies done by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, developing countries use 20% of pesticides purchased on the global market, but have about 99% of all farmers who get poisoned by pesticides or insecticides (Langman). There are about 70,000 yearly poisonings that could possibly lead to death or have long term illness. Agribusiness companies such as Monsanto produce pesticides which are tested and approved by government entities before they are used. The underlying problem in this particular case is the use of cheap and toxic pesticides by inexperienced farmers without proper precaution over their personal health. The profitability to be made in the agricultural industry, especially that of GM crops in developing nations is so high farmers are willing to seek maximum profit by taking shortcuts and purchasing illegal pesticides so they can maximize
The website on Safe Chemical Policy protest current policies on pesticides as too strict, and they have some valid points. They point to the cost and time to pay registration fees and to submit data. While the time spent is perhaps unavoidable if companies are committed to obtaining accurate data, large fees for those doing the right thing by registering their product to ensure that it is safe is counterintuitive. Large fees serve to dissuade those who genuinely care about the wellbeing of their farm workers and customers, and such fees only encourage companies to seek out loopholes to get their product pass. The Safe Chemical Policy group also reveal that the registering process can take from 9 to 10 years. This may mean that the EPA and the agencies that also have a role in regulating pesticides are overloaded. So while pesticide use must be more regulated to stop harmful pesticides from making it to the market, and recalling those that are dangerous, there must also be reform to unneeded policies that only serve to inhibit those companies with good intentions. These changes will most likely have to come from conscientious people such as you and me. Changes may come from the federal or state governments, but it is unlikely that such reform will take place without popular support. At the present most people seem to care more about other issues which results in pesticide regulations being relegated to the sidelines. This may prove dangerous as pesticides are a worldwide danger that affect quite literally everyone, and may have more impact than we see today such as in the case of earlier pesticide
Pesticides are normally misused by people with little knowledge or care for their harmful effects. Without effective enforcement of regulations, pesticides are easily spread beyond their projected areas. According to research, the overuse of pesticides causes many human diseases, animal diseases, and disruptions in our ecosystem. Well defined regulations, along with consumer education, could limit the misuse of pesticides and protect our fragile pollinator populations from continued decline to help ensure future food sources for many generations to come.
As I browse the locations where this initiative is in play, all sorts of countries, including China, Brazil and Sweden and so on. Though this initiative set out to diminish pesticide use in the USA and Canada, there has been a fair share of distribution across the world. The ability for the initiative to existing in various locations with the same policy; Canada is not less stringent than Sweden is distributive justice. That being said, on of the challenges certified holders face has to do with the geographical location. In Sweden, forest owners in the north experience more weevil on their lands compared to the owners in the South. The pesticide policy allows for stakeholders to grant a derogation pass for a period of 5 years for this kind of cases. The geographical scale has an effect on the forest production. If the minimal amount of HHPs used by this northern forester is not enough to kill the weevils, FSC pesticide policy state such certified member will not receive the eco-label for their products. Now this scenario is a case of distributive injustice because in this case forest owners do not have an alternative pesticide that helps to effectively manage their products, they are also deprived of the label that their customers have seen before. The policy, though used the 3R and the IPM method to create a boundary to see which holders are engaging in right practices did
As the global population move into an increased dependence on technology, there is a negative feedback observed between natural ecosystem and humans. That is, the resources from plants and animals, unfortunately, becomes the driving force for our conspicuous consumption. However, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an organisation that helps to mitigate some of this unsustainable means of production. Their main mission is to manage the world’s forest in a way that promotes environmental, social and economic prosperity. One of the initiatives set up by this organisation to help meet their goal is the FSC Pesticide Policy.
In chapter two of the book, “Silent Spring” it talks about how in the twentieth century humans have figured out how to alter nature. Humans are altering nature to if what they wanting living and not living. Before this life on earth was based on living organisms and how they reaction and function to the environment. Now humans have made a chemical overdose that is irreversible and is harming more than what it was indented for. This chemical is being sprayed on crops, gardens, and lawns that are poison to the living organisms that living on them. Along with killing of many species of insects, we are also killing am adaption period. The insects and critters being subjected to this pesticide cannot adapt because humans are always coming out with a different and not giving time for adaption because it waste too much time. In making this pesticide, we are now not just killing insects we are forming radiation that came from tampering with these chemicals, making for an unnatural creation. With this creation, we have
Pesticides are chemicals that are used to control crops from weeds, insects, and more (1). Pests are plants, animals, and organisms that could become a threat to the food supply and health (5). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for the regulation of pesticides in the United States. Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), all manufacturers of pesticides must register their products with the EPA (1). The EPA has set strict rules regarding the use and availability of pesticides. Pesticide manufacturers must provide test data to the EPA about the toxicity, and the EPA will then approve the pesticide for specific use, such as controlling a specific species of insect on a type of plant (1). Pesticides are evaluated for many risk-factors including potential danger to humans and wildlife (3). Before pesticides are approved for use, the manufacturer must prove that the pesticide is not too toxic to be used on crops that will eventually be consumed by humans (3). They must also prove
One concern about pesticides and herbicide usage is the amount of residues left on the end product of crops sprayed with the chemicals, and their effects on human health. (Williamson, 2007, p. 184). However, these effects are closely tested and levels are strictly regulated to ensure there is no danger from possible pesticide residues. Since 1910, many rules, regulations, and agencies have been formed to monitor the safety of the pesticides and herbicides used in conventional farming. These chemicals must meet specific safety standards in order to be registered for use, and regulations on levels of each product safe for use are also put in place. (Tafel et al.,2007, p.184). All pesticides are rigorously examined to ensure they have no significant effects on human health, or the environment. The residues in the food chain are closely monitored, and regularly tested, to ensure they are below legal limits. In a recent survey of residues
The Dow Chemical Company specializes in agricultural chemicals such as pesticides. I used the pesticides listed on their website to cross reference what pesticides are being used in Salinas and in the town of Monte Maiz in Argentina. Monte Maiz is a town that has been plagued with cancer and neurological damages to pregnant mothers fetuses because of the high concentration and persistence of pesticides in the community. Through cross-referencing chemicals I found that the insecticide Lorsban 48 E, also known as chlorpyrifos, is used on the soybean crops in Argentina (DOW AgroSciences, np). Here in the Salinas Valley the same chemical, chlorpyrifos, is being used on apple orchards primarily in Watsonville, a city here in the county. The consequences and effects of chlorpyrifos being used in Monte Maiz illustrate the potential ramifications of the use of this harmful chemical. Due to a director at the local hospital in Monte Maiz noticing increases in patients with cancer, an organization, the Network for the Protection of Health and Environment, conducted research on the town. The team concluded, “ One of the most significant findings obtained from the survey was that while the expectation of new cancer cases in Monte Maiz was 11 per year, in 2014 the town had 35 cases - three times as many. The town also had five times the national average of spontaneous abortions - and 50% of children between six and seven years had respiratory
Vietnam and the Philippines have enjoyed long, friendly, and mutually beneficial relations. This year, Vietnam imported about a third of its rice from the Philippines, while the Philippines imported about a quarter of its pesticides from Vietnam. Recently, however, relations between Vietnam and the Philippines have been clouded by a catastrophic industrial accident. A concentrated form of the chemical pesticide CP-70 leaked from a chemical plant in Vietnam, adversely affecting large tracts of Philippine farmland. The chemical plant was built three years ago by VinaChem International, a manufacturer of pesticides and fertilizers, and is owned and operated by the government of Vietnam. VinaChem developed CP-70 and is its sole manufacturer.