Discuss Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (Cardwell, 2009) divides the way children learn and develop their thinking into four groups, referred to as stages. The first stage occurs around 0-2 years and is called the sensorimotor stage in which children explore the world and objects around them through their reflexes. The second stage of development according to Piaget is called the pre-operational stage. In this stage, children between 2-6 years learn how to use a language to communicate; however, understanding of approach is general. They only know the world from their own aspect. The third stage of cognitive development is referred to as the concrete operational stage. Children use …show more content…
Piaget referred to a child as a scientist and proposed that cognitive skills expand through two processes called assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation includes using already known schema to handle a new thing or situation. On the other hand, accommodation happens when existing schema does not work and needs to be changed. In spite of this, when child is faced with new object or situation they cannot assimilate they reached phase called disequilibrium.
Piaget supported his theory in a study called Conservation of Numbers (reference), where he compared children of different ages. All of them have been given 2 parallel lines of tokens and asked if they had the same amount of tokens. He then stretched the tokens (not taking any of or putting any on) while children watched him and asked again, if the 2 rows still had the same amount of tokens. The pre-operational stage children thought there was more tokens because the row was longer. Whereas, children in the concrete operational state can maintain the quality of matter and say that the lines of tokens are same
In conclusion, (Cherry, 2015) Piaget’s theory of cognitive development had a great effect on education. Although, Piaget did not really put his theory in application like this, great deal of educational providers build their teaching programmes upon beliefs, that each child should be thought on the level which they are developmentally ready.
Piaget has been criticised
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Jean Piaget is a key figure for development, focusing on cognitive constructivism – that being that we must learn from experience and development, building on knowledge that has already been developed. The strengths and weaknesses of Piaget 's cognitive development theory will be discussed.
Psychologist Jean Piaget developed the Piaget’s theory around the late 1920’s and early 1930’s. Piaget’s theory implies that cognitive growth advances in different stages, influenced by an instinctive need to know basis. The four stages of Piaget’s theory are, sensorimotor (birth to about two years old), preoperational (average two to seven years old), concrete operational (seven to eleven years old), and formal operational stage (eleven to undetermined years old).
The Piaget's stage theory of cognitive development is also known as the stage theory. It introduces that, in the expansion of our thinking, we act through an organized and certain sequence of steps. However, the theory focuses not only on compassionate how the children obtain knowledge, but likewise on the discernment of the substance of intelligence. According to the Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, there are two stages in the thinking pattern of a 3-year old preschooler and 9-year-old student. They are the preoperational stage for the 2 to 7 year old and the concrete operations stage for the 9 year old. The preoperational stage (three years old preschooler), this is where a new child can intellectually perform and signify to the objects and issues with the quarrel or the images, and they can act. The concrete operations (nine year old student), where a child is at the stage and deliver the ability to maintain, reserve their thinking, and analyze the objects in conditions of their many parts. However, they can also assume logically and understand comparison, but only about the concrete events.
Most of the criticism of Piaget’s work is in regards to his research methods. A major source of his inspiration for the theory was based on his observations of his own children. And because of this small sample group, people believe that it is difficult and incorrect to generalise his findings to a larger population. Similarly, many psychologists believe that Piaget underestimated the age which children could accomplish certain tasks and that sometimes children understand a concept before they are able to demonstrate their understanding of it. For example, children in the Sensorimotor stage may not search for a hidden object because their motor skills are not developed, rather than because they lack object permanence. This has been supported by evidence from Bower & Wishart (1972). They found that the way that an object is made to disappear influences the child’s response. As well as this, Piaget’s theory has been said to overestimate that every child and adult reaches the formal operational stage of knowledge development. Dasen (1994) claims that only a third of adults ever reach this stage.
Adaptation involves children changing their behavior to meet situation demands. Assimilation is showing that the child understands the relationship between concepts. Accommodation is the altering of previous concepts in the face of new information, such as knowing that fish are not the only animal in the ocean. The equilibrium concept is Piaget's term for the process that the human ability to adapt to changes in the world and understanding the difference between the real world and what we perceive.
Piaget was a Swiss Psychologist and is most famous for his work and research on cognitive development. He put forward the Theory of Cognitive Development and key elements in this theory include the formation of “Schemas” and “organisation”. A “schema” is an individuals thoughts and beliefs about an object or event and “organisation” refers to the ability of the child to put stages of each period (eg. Sensori-Motor Period) into a logical order (Miller,
Piaget had 4 different stages to his Cognitive-Development theory. His ideas included the stages sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. The main idea of Piaget’s theory was to explain that a childs reasoning develops in four different stages. His theory helped explain how children of different ages start to think and view the world for themselves.
Therefore Jean Piaget proposed a step -wise sequence of mental development during childhood. (Hansen & Zambo, 2005) Discusses that in order to provide an overview of Piaget’s core ideas there are four stages of cognitive development during childhood that will be discussed. The first stage is the Sensorimotor stage which
The second educational belief grounded in Piaget’s theory is individual differences. Piaget’s theory asserts that children go through all the same developmental stages; however they do so at different rates* because of this teachers should put more effort to arrange classroom activities for groups of children and individuals rather than for the whole class group. Also because individual differences are
Piaget believed that there were three processes involved in moving from one stage to the next these were assimilation accommodation and equilibrium. Assimilation is the process of converting new information so
Jean Piaget is considered to be very influential in the field of developmental psychology. Piaget had many influences in his life which ultimately led him to create the Theory of Cognitive Development. His theory has multiple stages and components. The research done in the early 1900’s is still used today in many schools and homes. People from various cultures use his theory when it comes to child development. Although there are criticisms and alternatives to his theory, it is still largely used today around the world.
Piaget soon created the theory of cognitive development. Cognitive development is a study in the fields of neuroscience and psychology. It focuses on a child development. Mainly, the development of a child’s information processing, conceptual resources,
Piaget’s theory also allowed us a way to accept and understand that children's cognitive behavior is intrinsically motivated. Social and other reinforcements do influence children's cognitive explorations but children learn because of the way they are built. In Piaget’s mind cognitive adapts to the environment through assimilation. Also accommodation is a type of biological adaptation (Flavell, 1996). According to Piaget in order to characterize cognitive development in humans we need to understand co-present in cognitive activity which is cognitive structure (Flavell, 1996). Piaget was the first psychologist to try explaining describing cognitive development. His argument is that intellectual advances are made through the equilibration process that has three steps: the first step is for the cognitive equilibrium to de at a low development level; then, cognitive disequilibrium has to be induced by discrepant or inassimilable phenomena and lastly cognitive equilibration has to be at a higher developmental level.
On Piaget's task for conservation of length, Piaget shows the subject two pencils equal in length and subject knows the pencils are the same length. But once one of the pencils is moved longer than the other one, the subject fails to recognize that they were the same. Piaget's task for conservation for liquid, he shows the young child two identical glasses, then he pours the same amount of water both glasses. The subject knows that the two glasses of water are equal. But if water from one glass is poured into a longer thinner glass, the subject couldn’t comprehend this glass contains the same amount of water as the original two identical glasses. Piaget's explains that children's thinking is "perception bound" in preoperational stage, so they can’t focus their attention on two aspects of the new glass, they were attentive only to one aspect which is that one glass is taller than the other two; failing to realize the taller glass had the same amount of liquid.
The first stage of Piaget’s development theory is the sensorimotor stage which takes place in children most commonly 0 to 2 years old. In this stage, thought is developed through direct physical interactions with the environment. Three major cognitive leaps in this stage are the development of early schemes, the development of goal-oriented behavior, and the development of object permanence. During the early stages, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them. They focus on what they