Review of Literature The first study under critique is titled “Postoperative pain management experiences among school-aged children: a qualitative study” (Sng et al., 2013). The purpose of their study is to explore postoperative pain experiences among school-aged children in Singapore, where they are a culturally diverse population. They used a phenomenology design in which to explore there lived experiences. Their research sample included children who were the age of six to twelve, could verbally communicate in English or mandarin, and was post-op for at least twenty four hours. This excluded children with disabilities or chronic pain. Ethics and trustworthiness was taken into consideration and stated in their research. Limitations were stated. Multiple sub-themes emerged that discussed the different ways to relieve pain and a few methods were using cognitive-behavioral methods, pain medication, using physical methods such as massaging and repositioning, emotional support from family and nurses, and using distraction techniques such as video games. These sub-themes all fall under the main themes stated in the method section and the results of this study stated pharmacological methods were the common ones (Sng et al., 2013). For a further in-depth framework refer to appendix A. The second study under critique is titled “An exploration of Singaporean parental experiences in managing school-aged children 's postoperative pain: a descriptive qualitative approach” (Lim,
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The psychological processes in the article include pain perception, and how we as humans perceive pain, how we react to it, and how we adapt to it. The article explains the pain signaling process and how pain can be amplified. For example, when we get pricked by a needle, a signal from our finger ascends through the spinal cord to reach parts of the brain. From there, we perceive pain, then we form a pain experience. Pain perception can be resulting from several factors such as the frequency of pain input, how sensitive the CNS is, How the body reacts after brain perceives and tries to send information to the injured area. A pain experience is when we have the urge to put a band aid on our injury, or be scared to get pricked from a needle again. However, each pain experience differs from one culture to the other, moreover, one person to the other. The article is conducting a research paper about pain and pain perception in different ethnic groups.
Another thing that could be an issue among Egyptian patients could be their cultural response to pain. From the time I started nursing school I was taught that pain is subjective. People experience and respond to pain in different ways and this can certainly be influenced by their culture. As the nurse we have to learn to cope with our feelings towards this issue and treat the patient, not the symptoms. Egyptians in particular try to avoid pain by seeking interventions as soon as possible. They can be both verbal and nonverbal about their pain, but they tend to be more reserved in front of healthcare professionals as opposed to their families.” These conflicting behaviors are confusing to health-care professionals
First pain is an everyday experiences that is expressed through the use of language and is then legitimized (Waddie, 1996). If a patient as a history of depression or chronic pain they have pain every day and the concept is used to help explain their pain. As nurse we use the concept of pain to find a base line of the pain and to assess new pain. In surgical patients they may have multiple types of pain from the incision, emotional, and history. The concept educates the nurse of the different form that pain can present itself. Pain can also guide how we treat the patient. Emotional pain would not be treated with the “so know pain pills”, but with talking or listening to patient. Concept of pain also address the different form of patient and how the nurse and patient response to it. If a patient is having somatic pain from an incision the nurse could react by applying heat or ice. Pain is what the patient says it is.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of the Chinese culture on pain perception, responses and management. Cultural backgrounds can have a significant role in how a person perceives and copes with their pain, many studies have identified the vast difference between cultures. “Culture shapes many aspects of the experience of pain, including pain expression, lay remedies, social roles, expectations, perceptions of the medical system, when/how/where to seek care, healthcare practices, illness beliefs and behaviors, and receptivity to medical care interventions” (Campbell, 2012)
JCAHO (2011) also stated that patients and their families needed to be educated about pain and how the patients’ pain is going to be managed. Every patient perceives and exhibits pain in a different manner and if nurses do not assess the patient thoroughly they can miss it. For instance, Engebretson et al. (2006) acknowledged that, patients manifest pain in different ways and this resulted in nurses performing an inadequate assessment of their patients’ pain. Also, Engebretson et al. recognized that patients often conceal their pain because they do not want to be viewed by staff as complainers or addicts, and if patients decide to speak up the nurses frequently view their patients’ statements from their own cultural, moral and ethical belief system and not their patients which leaves the patients’ pain untreated.
“Pain is a universal condition. At some time, each person will experience pain from illness or injury. Pain isn 't only a physical experience; it also has an emotional component that may trigger behaviors that play an important role in how a patient 's pain is perceived by others (Yvonne, 2009)”. Pain can create a great impact on person’s life. In this paper, I will focus on the effects of Chinese culture on pain perception, responses, and management as well as how their ethnic differences and ethnic background helps them to
The purpose of the research study was to determine if registered nurses are using evidence-based practice standards for assessing pain in special populations such as different cultural backgrounds and those with chronic pain syndromes. The research hypothesis states that registered nurses utilized evidence-based practice standards when assessing pain in special populations such as those with different cultural backgrounds and those with chronic pain syndromes. The null hypothesis states that registered nurses do not use evidence-based practice standards when assessing pain in special populations such as those with different cultural backgrounds and those with chronic pain syndromes. A survey study was completed to determine if registered nurses
The Pain Assessment Survey was developed to assess whether registered nurses are using evidence-based standards to assess and manage pain for special populations. Descriptive statistics were used in this study. The sample group surveyed included registered nurses currently enrolled in an on-line Baccalaureate program. A quasi-non-experimental study was utilized to allow the collection of a large amount of data at one time, while allowing the researches to compare and contrast the use of evidence based practice standards when preventing medication errors. This study contained both dependent and independent variables. The independent variable present is the use of evidence-based practice standards in the assessment of pain in special populations. The dependent variable is the management of pain in special populations of different cultures and chronic pain syndromes. The researchers concluded that out of the 50 participants of the survey, the majority use the verbal pain scale. The researchers concluded that registered nurses are using evidence-based standards of practice when assessing pain in special populations such as those with different cultural backgrounds and those with chronic pain
The Biopsychosocial Model is an all-encompassing model aimed to improve the quality of care provided to patients with respect to the biological, psychological and social aspects of their illness. The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Illness integrates biological factors, psychological factors and social factors into one model (Engel, G.L., 1977). In this essay, I will utilise this model to guide my research in relation to post-operative surgical pain and explore the benefits of its application in caring for the whole person.
A valuable lesson to learn is that many things in life are about perception. Perception allows each individual observing or experiencing the same phenomenon to view, react, and report the occurrence in their own way. Perception is not about being right or wrong, it’s about allowing each individual to have their own reality of the world around them. Unfortunately, breakthrough pain is a phenomenon that many individuals live with on a daily bases. Qualitative research can help develop a better understanding of breakthrough pain and individuals perceptions surrounding it. Qualitative research looks at an individual’s subjective meaning of an experience (Nieswiadomy, 2012, p. 6). An article published in Pain Management Nursing in August of 2015
Pediatric pain management is measured subjectively because it is based off of what the patient says or how the nurse interprets the pain scale. Pain is rated using different scales, unfortunately these different scales could yield different results. Nurses are trained to use pediatric pain scales to analyze and treat pain but parents are not supplied with the tools to manage pain when the patient goes home. With 84% of all pediatric surgical procedures performed on an outpatient basis, the importance of teaching parents how to assess for and manage pain has become more important than ever (Rony, Fortier, Chorney, Perret, & Kain, 2010). According to Rony’s et al. (2010) study, it is apparent that pediatric pain is not being treated effectively. The study showed that 58.8% of children were receiving less than the daily recommended does prescribed by the pediatrician (p.1). Results of the study also showed that parents had false assessments on if their child was actually in pain. 36% of parents believed that if their child was in pain, they would cry out for the parent , 30% agreed that their child would always tell them if they are in pain, while 22% said that the child would report their pain immediately (Rony, Fortier, Chorney, Perret, & Kain, 2010, ). Children do not always verbalize when they are in pain. Sometimes the pain can be so intense that a child is unable to talk. If the child catches on to the parents negative perception of pain medications, the child may not
Within this essay I plan to discuss: one current view of path physiology of pain, two ages appropriate pain tools for babies and toddlers and will also be exploring the nursing management of acute pain experience in babies and toddlers, including a strategy for ensuring the safe delivery of care.
In emergency rooms across the United States one of the most common complaints is pain. Recently, there have been reports on the news saying that doctors have a problem with prescribing too much pain medication. That may be true for adults but the same cannot be said for pediatric patients. A study of 24,707 Emergency Department (ED) visits reported that one 44% of pediatric patients have very little pain control in spite of pain documentation (Ramira, Instone, & Clark, 2016, p. 39). Sometimes it seems as though health care professionals take the pain of an adult more serious than a child’s. In the article, Pediatric Pain Management: An Evidence-Based Approach conducted by Maria Ramira, APRN, Susan Instone, APRN, and Mary Clark, PhD RN seeks to address this issue and introducing methods that might improve pediatric pain management.
The most common reason that people seek medical care is pain, and pain is the leading cause of disability (Peterson & Bredow, 2013, p. 51; National Institute of Health, 2010). Pain is such an important topic in healthcare that the United States congress “identified 2000 to 2010 as the Decade of Pain Control and Research” (Brunner L. S., et al., 2010, p. 231). Unfortunatelly, patients are reporting a small increase in satisfaction with the pain management while in the hospital (Bernhofer, 2011). Pain assessment and treatment can be complex since nurses do not have a tool to quantify it. Pain is considered the fifth vital sign, however, we do not have numbers to guide our interventions. Pain is a subjective expirience that cannot be shared easily. Since nurses spend more time with patients in pain than any other healthcare provider, nurses must have a clear understanding of the concept of pain (Brunner, et al., 2010). Concept analysis’ main objective is to clarify ideas, to enhance critical thinking, and to promote communication (Rodgers & Knafl, 2000). This paper will examine the concept of pain using Wilson’s Steps of Concept Analysis (Rodgers & Knafl, 2000).