Introduction In the United States, as well as many other countries and cultures, postpartum depression is prevalent, but many times overlooked or not diagnosed. Postpartum depression is a “mood disorder that occurs with alarming frequency with documented prevalence of 10% to 15% during the first 3 months after delivery” (Horowitz, et. al, 2013, p. 287). Throughout hospitals, nurses are being educated about postpartum depression, which allows them to educate patients on what postpartum depression is and how to recognize the signs. If unrecognized and left untreated, women are at an increased risk of future depressive episodes and functional impairment (Katon et. al, 2014). There are many initiatives in place to increase the amount of screening and education that is occurring for postpartum depression. Evidence-Based Practice A nurse should recognize signs of postpartum depression, as well as opportunities to educate women and their family. Postpartum depression has numerous risk factors, as well as signs and symptoms. The nurse and patient should understand what postpartum depression is so they will be able to recognize risk factors, as well as signs and symptoms earlier. The National Guideline Clearinghouse provides “evidence-based practice guidelines that strongly support identification and screening for depressive symptoms in the postpartum period,” these screenings are both beneficial for the nurse and patient (Schaar, 2010, p.S37). The risk factors that are included
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Postpartum depression is one of the most common complications of childbearing with an estimated prevalence of 19.2% in the first three months after delivery (1). Depressive episodes (major and mild) may be experienced by approximately half of women during the first postpartum year (1). Characterized by depressed mood, loss of pleasure or interest in daily activities, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, irritability, sleep and eating disturbances (2), its etiology is multi-faceted and complex (3;4).
Thesis: Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can greatly effect new mothers. Knowing how to recognize their symptoms and treating it can greatly increase chances of a healthy, happy living.
I believe that mental health is not well discussed, or known, in today’s culture. People could struggle with mental health daily and others could have no idea. There are many different types of mental health issues, and one specific issue that is rarely discussed is postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is a specific type of depression that new mothers can experience after the birth of their child. (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, Nock, 2012). The changing hormones a mother can experience directly after birth cause this condition. Postpartum depression can cause a mother to feel sad, guilty, and even experience thoughts of suicide. Postpartum depression may be discussed in the text, but the causes and even the treatments are not.
The postpartum period is about going through change and transition from a woman to a new mother. This is a time where mothers restore muscle tone and connective tissue in the body after the birth of the baby. Although there is a dramatic change during the postpartum period, women’s body is nonetheless not fully stored to pre-pregnant physiology until about 6 months post-delivery (Osailan, 6). At this time, women need to receive special health and social support to prevent problems such as postpartum depression. During this period, culture plays a major role in the way a woman perceives and prepares for her birthing experience. In fact, the notions of birth and postnatal care vary considerably with cultural beliefs and traditional practices. Each culture has its own values, beliefs and practices related to pregnancy and birth (Osailan,1). In the United States, after a short hospital stay, moms and babies are sent home because it is expected for mothers to heal within 42 days after giving birth. Whereas in other societies like Mexico, the postpartum recovery is active long enough until the new mother is fully healed (Brenhouse). In the article, “Why Are America’s Postpartum Practices So Rough on New Mothers?” by Hilary Brenhouse, the author states, “With these rituals comes an acknowledgment, familial and federal, that the woman needs relief more at this time than at any other—especially if she has a career to return to—and that it takes weeks, sometimes months, to properly
This journal article focuses on postpartum depression and how it differentiates from other disorders. This paticuarl article however focuses on defining the different types of depression within this catagorey and looks into clinical involvement as well as recognsisng risk elements and sysmtoms that allow it to be characterized from other mood and anxiety disorders. Beck (2006) finds that persons who where most at risk of this disorder most commently had stressful lives, with a history of mental illness. This article also concludes that postpartum depression can lead into server physosi, which is in need of immediate intervention and that this mental state can lead women to be dangerous to themselves of there children and clearly states that they should never be left alone. Overall this article is paticually usuful as a researcher as it clearly describes the differences in distinguishing the types of depression as well as the servierty of postpartum depression which can be underrecognsied.
Postpartum depression, which is the most prevalent of all maternal depressive disorders, is said to be the hidden epidemic of the 21st century. (1) Despite its high prevalence rate of 10-15% and increased incidence, postpartum depression often goes undetected, and thus untreated. (2) Nearly 50% of postpartum depression cases are untreated. As a result, these cases are put at a high risk of being exposed to the severe and progressive nature of their depressive disorder. (3) In other words, the health conditions of untreated postpartum depression cases worsen and progress to one of their utmost stages, and they are: postpartum obsessive compulsive disorder, postpartum panic disorder, postpartum post traumatic stress, and postpartum psychosis.
The birthing process generally leaves women with overwhelming joy and happiness. However, some women do experience a period of postpartum blues lasting for a few days or at most a couple of weeks but goes away with the adjustment of having a baby (Postpartum Depression, 2013). A condition called Postpartum Depression Disorder (PPD) leaves a dark gray cloud over 10-20% of woman after birth that is recognized in individuals 3 weeks to a year after the delivery of their baby (Bobo & Yawn, 2014). PPD leaves new mothers feeling lonely, anxious, and hopeless (Bobo at el, 2014). Postpartum Depression is a cross cutting disorder that can affect any woman after the delivery of a baby regardless of race, socioeconomic status, age, or education level (Postpartum Depression, 2013). Although this disorder affects more than 10% of women the article Concise Review for Physicians and Other Clinicians: Postpartum Depression reports that less than half of women with PPD are actually diagnosed with this condition (Bobo at el, 2014). It is important that postpartum women and their support systems receive education on what PPD consist of and ways to recognize the signs and symptoms of PPD so that a diagnosis is not overlooked. Early diagnosis is important because early recognition and treatment of the disorder yields for better results when treating individuals with PPD. In this paper I will deliver information about PPD based on recent literature,
As mental health in America is finally being addressed and more research is seen, it is important to look at the potential causes or correlations that lead to common diagnoses for patients. According to Brummelte and Galea (2010), “depression affects approximately 1 in 5 people, with the incidence being 2-3x higher in women than in men.” Postpartum depression (PPD), a subset of this debilitating disease, has an estimated prevalence rate of 13-19% with another estimated 50% that are undiagnosed (O’hara and McCabe, 2013). As a whole, it has the same symptoms as major depressive disorder but diagnosis occurs within 0-4 weeks of giving birth (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Part of this lack of diagnosis is due to a multitude of healthcare
70 to 80 percent of women who have given birth experience what is know as “Baby blues,” (Piotrowski & Benson, 2015). These are mild symptoms of depression and usually go away within two weeks after giving birth. However, the symptoms of unspecified depressive disorder with peripartum onset also known as postpartum depression (PPD) can be more intense and last significantly longer than the “baby blues.” According to the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association [APA] 2013), postpartum depression occurs during pregnancy or in the 4 weeks following delivery. Postpartum depression has symptoms that cause clinically significant distress or impairment in the new mothers life and can include the inability to take care of the newborn or herself. The
According to two recent studies, 7-13% of all postpartum women suffer from depression. Even more alarming, the prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) in mothers who have pre-term infants rises to 30-40% according to a recent review (Robertson E, Grace S, Wallington T, Stewart DE., 2004; Schmied V, Johnson M, Naidoo N, et al., 2013). Mood and anxiety disorders, specifically PPD, are severe, yet common complications in women of reproductive age. Undertreated depression in postpartum women is associated with health risks for both the mother and infant, making the goal of euthymia a top priority in the care of postpartum women. Current practice regarding PPD focuses on the triad approach of early detection and prevention, the use of pharmacotherapy, and the use of psychotherapy. However, the treatment of mental illness during pregnancy requires weighing the benefits of pharmacological treatment for the mother, to the risk of the medications on the growth and development of the fetus as well as the theoretical risks associated with undertreated depression. However, many studies are showing that the risks of postpartum depression to both the mother and infant significantly outweigh the risks of pharmacological treatment during pregnancy. Also, due to the ethical issues surrounding trials of pharmacotherapy during pregnancy, further research to determine evidenced-based methods of treatment are still necessary. The most important intervention to date is a
Depression is a major public health problem that is twice as common in women as men during the childbearing years. Postpartum depression is defined as an episode of non-psychotic depression according to standardized diagnostic criteria with onset within 1 year of childbirth (Stewart D., et. al, 2003, p. 4). For women aged 15 to 44 years around the world, Postpartum Depression is second to HIV/AIDS, in terms of total disability (World Health Organization, 2001). Depression has a profound impact on parameters of interpersonal behavior. Post-Partum depression
Postpartum depression is the most common psychological complexity that occurs after childbirth (Bakhshizadeh, 2013). This form of depression has been reported to be as high as 20% (Asltoghiria, 2012). The mother will begin to experience postpartum depression between the birth of the infant and 6 to 8 weeks later (Bhati, 2015). Depending on the person, the typical length of postpartum depression ranges anywhere from two weeks to two years in length (Posmontier, 2010). It is thought that postpartum depression affects mothers of multiples at a greater incidence than mothers whom birth just one child, and the chance increases with the number of children in a multiple birth. Evidence shows that the older the mother’s age at the time of birth, shows there is no notable increase in the risk of being diagnosed with postpartum depression. Another factor that is thought to have an influence on the diagnosis of postpartum depression is income within the household. A study shows that as income goes down, the risk of having
Mothers who have brought into this world a blessing have been preparing themselves for a big change in their life. They have been learning and educating themselves about how to be a good mother. Many mothers find it really hard to transition from being an independent woman without children to becoming a mother (Corrigan, Kwasky, & Groh, 2015). Adapting to motherhood can be a drastic change, and usually creates challenges that lead to feeling overwhelmed (Leger & Letourneau, 2015). When a newly mother begins experiencing stress or becomes emotional then there can be a possibility that they can encounter Postpartum Depression (Leger et al., 2015). Postpartum depression can be seen and experienced in many different ways, it all varies on every mother (Corrigan et al., 2015). Many different mental health issues can be seen including baby blues, postpartum depression, postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder, and the most serious, postpartum psychosis (Tam & Leslie, 2001).
Untreated postpartum affective illness places both the mother and infant at risk and is associated with significant long-term effects on child development and behavior; therefore, prompt recognition and treatment of postpartum depression are essential for both the maternal and infant's well being.
This journal article provides an overview of understanding the needs of women with postnatal depression. The author states the importance of early detection of postnatal depression. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommends to assess the pregnant women during their first contact with healthcare professionals in primary care services and should be assessed again in the postnatal period, at around four to six weeks and at three to four months. The article also mentions the healthcare professionals should be able to differentiate between mild and severe forms of the condition and between clinical depression and normal adjustments to the change. Healthcare professionals need to remain alert to the different signs of indicating