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Principles of beneficence and non-maleficence

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_In order to have a common basis of understanding some words need to be defined:_

_BENEFICENCE:_ _The action of helping others and performing actions that would result in benefit to another person._

_NON-MALEFICENCE:_ _The avoidance of causing harm or evil by doing a certain action or by not doing any action at all._

_PHYSICIAN:_ _is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments_.

_TORT_ : A civil wrong committed against a person or property, excluding breach of contract.

BENEFICENCE AND NON-MALEFICENCE

As the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence are
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Encouraging a person to quit smoking, etc.

Examples of Non-maleficence:

Stopping a medication that is shown to be harmful.

Refusing to provide a treatment that has not been shown to be effective.

One of the most common ethical dilemmas arises in the balancing of beneficence and non-maleficence. This balance is the one between the benefits and risks of treatment and plays a role in nearly every medical decision such as whether to order a particular test, medication,
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