• The cervix begins to dilate early into pregnancy, leading to premature delivery
• If woman has had an insufficient cervix in a previous pregnancy
• During previous pregnancy the cervix was torn
• Previous abortion in later terms
• Due to abnormal Pap smear, having a cone biopsy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure on the cervix
• Pregnant with more than one fetus
• Miscarriages by the fourth month
• Cervix did not develop normally
• Vaginal discharge changes
• Bleeding or spotting
• Cramps or pressure in the lower abdomen and pelvis that increase in severity
• Cervical dialation
• Transvaginal ultrasound
• Pelvic exam
• Bed rest
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Harms related to cervical cancer screening with a Pap Smear are related to abnormal results. Abnormal results of a Pap Smear can cause short-term psychological harms that include anxiety and distress (USPSTF, 2016a). Abnormal results can also lead to further or more frequent testing (USPSTF, 2016a). Diagnostic procedure harms include vaginal bleeding, pain, and infection (USPSTF, 2016a). Harms of cervical treatment primarily include risks related to “adverse pregnancy outcomes” which include preterm delivery, low birthweight, and perinatal death (USPSTF, 2016a). Harms related to cervical treatment are also associated with false-positives (USPSTF, 2016a). Thus, overtreatment can be detrimental to the patient (USPSTF, 2016a).
If the Pap smear test results reveal abnormal cell changes, a physician will recommend for a women to undergo a colposcopy. A colposcopy is a procedure where a physician washes the cervix with a diluted vinegar solution and uses a microscope-like tool known as a colposcope to have a magnified view of the surface of the vagina and cervix. If the physician sees any abnormal areas, such as lesions on the cervix, then tissue samples are taken for examination under a microscope. Other than the Pap smear, a pelvic exam may be performed. In a pelvic exam, the vagina, along with adjacent organs, is examined visually and manually. A speculum, and instrument that separates tissue, is inserted into the vagina for visual examination. After, the organs are felt with the fingers by inserting one hand in the vagina, and putting the other hand on the abdomen to feel for any abnormalities. If invasive cervical cancer is suspected, or if the colposcopy and the Pap smear have different results, then other tests may be conducted. One test that may be performed is a cone biopsy. In a cone biopsy, a larger, cone shaped sample of cervical tissue is taken and examined for cancer cells. Another test that may be performed is endocervical curettage. During this procedure, the lining of the cervix is scraped and examined for cancer cells. Once a diagnosis of cervical cancer is made, then the
Maternity care in the United States is in jeopardy. There is an increasing trend of shortages of obstetrician-gynecologists and family physicians that once provided vital maternity care. With almost half of the nation’s counties lacking an obstetric provider, approximately ten million women are affected. Obstetricians-gynecologist themselves are also feeling the burdens of the understaffed hospitals and clinics with prolonged work hours. These medical professionals who dedicate their very lives to the field and the care of women are under a great amount of pressure and stress due to the shrinking workforce. Furthermore, interest amongst the youth is necessary in order to have an ample amounts of physicians available to replace the increasing
I believe expecting mothers need to seek guidance from their doctor on whether or not she should have a vaginal birth, or follow through with a "Elective" C-Section. I feel like women are so concerned about their rights, and though our female rights are important, I also feel that we need to seek guidance from those that are medically trained to see what they think is going to be best for the mother as well as the child. If the doctor feels that the mother and the child will be okay with proceeding with an "Elective" C-Section, I think it is so important (more important than the doctor's opinion) to seek our Heavenly Father's will. Our will might not always be His will, and it is important that we come before Him in all things in order for
The SRY gene is a very important aspect in determining the sex of an individual. In fact it is the SRY that specifically could be seen as the powerhouse machine in determining the sex of an individual. The SRY gene commonly called the Sex Determining Region of the Y- chromosome can normally cause the testis to develop rather than an ovary when it is presented in the chromosome. The function of the SRY gene is to provide a set of instructions for making the Sex-Determining region of the Y protein, which can also perform as a transcription factor, binding to specific regions of DNA and aid in the control and regulation of particular genes. Changes
At this point the patient was counseled about her options for proceeding. The patient elected to undergo a vaginal mass excision instead of a total vaginectomy despite the increased risk for recurrence. Subsequently the vaginal mass was excised and sent to pathology. Pathology revealed a 2.5 x 2 x 2 cm vaginal
Like most women, it’s important to find an OB-GYN you can trust while getting the care you deserve. Stellar Women’s Health Specialists in Wailuku shares tips on finding the best OB-GYN for your personal needs.
What is a LEEP and why is it done? Let me first explain why you should have the LEEP procedure done if you have an infection in you cervix. When a woman gets human papillomavirus or HPV she has a high chance of getting an infection in her virgin or cervix. This virus is extremely common worldwide, there are up to 100 types of HPV, of which at least 13 are cancerous. This is a STD, but the two types of HPV that usually cause cervical cancer are 16 and 18. In 2012 approximately 270,000 women died from cervical cancer. That is why it is so important to get this LEEP procedure done. It is better to get this infection out before it turns in to cancer.
It usually comes about after an abnormal pap or positive HPV screen. There are many treatment options out there today. First thing the patient will be referred to a gynecological oncologist to figure out what the best treatment will be. The doctor will perform a biopsy to remove the cancerous tissue from the cervix. Some biopsies can be used to remove all of the cancer. Some of these include endocervical curettage, cone biopsy, loop electrosurgical procedure (LEEP), and cold knife cone biopsy (“Cervical”, n.d.). If these treatments are not successful the use of radiation and chemotherapy are used to eradicate any remaining cancerous tissues or tumors (“How is cervical”,2014). To increase your survival rate and decrease your chances of reoccurrence you should receive prompt and effective treatment as soon as
If you are experiencing pain in your pelvic region, pain during sex, or irregular periods, your body might be telling you something. As per the US Department of Health and Human Services, these symptoms call for a visit to a gynecologist. Tell your gynecologist what type of discomposure or pain you are experiencing. Do you have continuous pain or does it come about unexpectedly? This will ensure that your doctor makes a correct diagnosis. If you have shrill pains in the pelvic region, you might have a ruptured ovarian cyst or an infection.
Cervical cancer malignant cancer of the cervix uteris or cervical area. It may present with vaginal bleeding but symptoms may be absent until the cancer is in its advanced stages, which has made cervical cancer the focus of intense screening efforts using the Pap smear. About 2.2 percent of women carry one of the 2 virus strains most likely to lead to cervical cancer. One of the symptoms of Cervical Cancer is very Unusual amount of discharge.
The growing ways of Pap test methods have made it a Iot easier for the doctors to identify the cancerous ceIIs, because TraditionaI Pap tests can be tough enough to study because ceIIs can get dried out, get covered with