Roman Cohen. Mr. Dunham. Career Ed. 25 January 2017. The

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Roman Cohen
Mr. Dunham
Career Ed
25 January 2017
The Effect of Genetic Markers
Genetic markers don’t always match physical appearance. First of all, a genetic marker is a gene or short sequence of DNA. Since the beginning of time our genetics have been changing constantly due to a lot of different aspects. Some causes of change include aging. As we get older our bodies chemicals change, we produce more and less of certain chemicals, for example; insulin. The changing of chemicals affect our body not just on the outside, but on the inside. It affects the way our genetic markers respond and can alter them. Some diseases are caused by a genetic mutation, or permanent change in one or more specific genes which can be caused by aging. …show more content…

It may be possible to pass down epigenetic changes to future generations if the changes occur in sperm or egg cells. Most epigenetic changes that occur in sperm and egg cells get erased when the two combine to form a fertilized egg in a process called "reprogramming." This reprogramming allows the cells of the fetus to "start from scratch" and make their own epigenetic changes. However, scientists think that some of the epigenetic changes in parents ' sperm and egg cells may avoid the reprogramming process and make it through to the next generation. If this is true, things like the food a person eats before they conceive could affect their future child. Scientists now think epigenetics can play a role in the development of some cancers. For instance, an epigenetic change that silences a tumor suppressor gene, such as a gene that keeps the growth of the cell in check, could lead to uncontrolled cellular growth. Another example might be an epigenetic change that "turns off" genes that help repair damaged DNA, leading to an increase in DNA damage, which in turn, increases cancer risk. (US, National Institutes of Health)
Another reason our genetic markers change over time is because we get diseases, also called a genetic disorder. A genetic disorder is a disease that is caused by a change or mutation in an individual’s DNA sequence.
These mutations can be due to an error in DNA replication or due to environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke and

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