Routes Of Immunization And Effects Of Antigen Dose

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Immunologist Toolbox Report Topics 1. Haptens First described by Karl Landsteiner, a hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when it attaches itself to a larger carrier molecule, usually a protein creating the hapten-carrier adduct or hapten-carrier complex. This complex then has the ability to become immunogenic. Haptens react specifically to the antibodies created against it and while the hapten, alone, cannot cause antibodies to respond it, it can bind with antibodies and act as an antigen. An example of a substance acting as a hapten is penicillin. When administered as an antibiotic, penicillin can bind with proteins in the body to form a hapten-carrier complex and cause anaphylaxis. Another example is urushiol, a toxin found in poison ivy. During exposure, urushiol can bind with skin proteins creating a complex that then can cause dermatitis. 2. Routes of Immunization and Effects of Antigen Dose Simply put, the route of immunization is the path used to introduce the immunization to a person’s body. There are several standard methods of immunization and administering a vaccine via the correct route is a critical factor to the success of the immunization. Typically, vaccines are given intramuscularly, subcutaneously, by intradermal injection (the topmost layer of skin), orally, or intranasal via nasal spray. Vaccines
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