Salt Water As A Universal Human Right

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1.0 Introduction

Water is life, and although it is tasteless, colourless and orderless, it is still the most valuable source of life. Fresh water is regarded as a universal human right (United Nations Committee in Economics, Social and cultural Rights, 2003).

2.0 Background

70% of the earths surface is covered with water and 90% of this is salt water, over 700 million people don 't have access to clean and safe drinking water (wateringearth.org). Furthermore 30% of the total world area comprises of inhabited arid and semi-arid areas (Howard, Mathais Xin, 2010). It has also been proven that social and economic development of these areas relate to significant water shortages. These areas also face the problem of limited fresh water from
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An IPCC report done in 2009, anticipates that over the next centuries climate change will influence river flows, sea levels and rainfall patterns. Dry and low pressure air contribute to the causes of aridity, therefore aridity is commonly found in areas where anticyclonic conditions are continuous.

3.0 Presentation Of Options

While a number of different techniques are available all over the world to ensure safe, clean drinking water, such as desalination, borehole water (ground water) the building of dams to store rainwater recycling of Municipal waste water, which seems to work well in industrial purpose (Mays, 2008) in Durban, South Arica. Through biological Water Treatment Plant, waste water has been successfully purified, but while it works well in industrial consumption convincing the public it is safe for drinking, it is proving to be a little difficult even though Shemang and Chaoka (2004) points out that the water is 100% safe for human consumption.

Other methods are Water Transfer which works in some countries such as Tanzania since water availability is difficult due to precipitation changes (British Geological Survey, 2004)

In order to sustain life in these regions two techniques will be discussed to ensure a constant supply of fresh water to these regions namely desalination and harvesting water.

Desalination is also referred to as distillation. It is a method whereby sea water is distilled into drinking
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