Throughout the mid 1960’s to the late 1970’s, the concept and interest of mental illness has been studied and discussed in countless different mediums ranging from films that tackled issues of sanity like One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest to novels that dealt with much darker issues such as schizophrenia in Flora Schreiber’s Sybil. One of the most controversial and talked about productions of the 20th century is Peter Shaffer’s 1974 Tony winning play, Equus, which recounts Dr. Martin Dysart’s encounter and treatment of a seventeen year old boy, Alan Strang, who blinded six horses with an icepick. The play focuses on therapy sessions between Dysart and Alan in which Dysart struggles arduously to bring to the surface Alan’s inner psyche and reasons for blinding the different horses. The play has content that may suggest the story focuses on mental illness, sexuality, and religion; however, this is only when the text is read and understood on an efferent level. The true essence of Equus is located in the numerous biblical parallels found through the analyzation of the plot lines that suggest. Through the analysis and biblical relation of plot points and scenes in Equus, the true essence of the story is revealed; not only is Equus a story of mental illness and sexuality, but it is also a parable of sorts, showing biblical passages and stories in a different and more relatable light.
The root and essence of the biblical parallels in Equus are present from the first moment that
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Throughout Shakespeare’s many works, mental illnesses have played an undeniable part in many of them, especially his tragedies. From Lady Macbeth hallucination of a bloody spot leading to her suicide, to Hamlet’s faked illness and Ophelia’s very real illness, afflictions of the mind are featured prominently in the Bard of Avalon’s many works. Still, in the Elizabethan era, understanding of mental illness was rudimentary at best, as were the methods of treating it. During the Middle Ages and Elizabethan Era, numerous theories about mental disorders and how to treat them abounded. Three plays of Shakespeare’s that feature mental illness most prominently are King Lear, Hamlet, and Macbeth, while also managing to showcase the conception of
In 1973, psychologist David Rosenhan published “On Being Sane in Insane Places” which documents the results of studies he and his confederates conducted at 12 different psychiatric hospitals across the United States. The studies were an examination into the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis methods. Rosenhan’s research focused on testing the hypothesis of whether or not psychiatrists and medical staff can distinguish the sane from the insane and if the characteristics that lead to diagnoses relate more to the patient or to the environment and context in which they’re being assessed. (Rosenhan, 1973) The study was divided into two main parts. Participant observations and comparative information studies were noted as well as they gave valuable insight into the treatment of psychiatric patients, conditions in psychiatric hospitals, and the effect that diagnostic labels had on how patients were perceived by staff. Ultimately, the study discovered that psychiatrists could not reliably distinguish the sane from the insane and insight was gained into how diagnostic labels and environmental context play a strong role in the perception of behavior.
What is truly considered to be sane or insane can never be absolutely determined by any means, but Charlotte Perkins Gilman investigates, to the best of her abilities, who and what should be understood as sane or insane. In “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, any reader with any ability to interpret can see that this subject matter is discussed throughout the text. But which characters are really insane and what evidence is there to prove this? By using the author’s text and other credible outside sources, this paper will research the deep realms of the minds of the characters introduced in the short story, “The Yellow Wallpaper.” One of
Holden Caulfield is an insane person in a sane world. What is insanity? Insanity is when you’re in a state of mind that prevents normal perception, behavior or social interaction. This state is mental illness. Insanity is when you do things in deranged or outrageous ways that could frighten people, or make people feel uncomfortable when around you. It’s when you do things out of the ordinary; yet feel as if they are ordinary. Insanity could come about when you’re depressed, or after a traumatic event, and sometimes even by keeping all your feelings bottled up inside of yourself. Sane people are sensible, reliable, well-adjusted and practice sound judgment. It’s behavior that is expected in a society. By these
An exceptionally tall, Native American, Chief Bromden, trapped in the Oregon psychiatric ward, suffers from the psychological condition of paranoid schizophrenia. This fictional character in Ken Kesey’s One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest struggles with extreme mental illness, but he also falls victim to the choking grasp of society, which worsens Bromden’s condition. Paranoid schizophrenia is a rare mental illness that leads to heavy delusions and hallucinations among other, less serious, symptoms. Through the love and compassion that Bromden’s inmate, Randle Patrick McMurphy, gives Chief Bromden, he is able to briefly overcome paranoid schizophrenia and escape the dehumanizing psychiatric ward that he is held prisoner in.
In “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” by Ken Kesey, Nurse Ratched symbolizes the oppression of society through archetypal emasculation. The male patients at the ward are controlled, alienated and forced into submission by the superior female characters. Throughout the novel, there is a constant fear of female superiority; Randle McMurphy, the sexually empowered male protagonist, states how they are essentially being castrated. Castration, in the novel, symbolizes the removal of freedom, sexual expression and their identity. Furthermore, Nurse Ratched, the mechanical enforcer, represents American society: corruption, surveillance and the deterioration of individuality.
Mental illness is any ailment or condition that impacts the way a man considers, feels, carries on, and/or identifies with others and to his or her environment. In spite of the fact that the indications of emotional sickness can extend from mellow to extreme and are distinctive relying upon the kind of dysfunctional behavior, a man with an untreated maladjustment regularly can't adapt to life's everyday schedules and requests. Dysfunctional behavior alludes to an extensive variety of psychological well-being conditions that influence your state of mind, deduction, and conduct. The case of emotional instability incorporates depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, dietary issues and addictive practices. Be that as it may, an emotional well-being concern turns into a dysfunctional behavior when progressing signs and side effects cause regular stretch and influence your capacity to work, a prime example of symptoms shown by Asante's mother, Amina throughout the course of this novel.
"Jails and prisons hold three times as many mentally ill people as mental health hospitals" (“Mentally Ill Prisoners”). This horrifying statistic directly reflects the mistreatment and inequity faced by the mentally ill in society, and speaks on behalf of the “356,000 inmates with serious mental illness in jails and state prisons” in the United States (How Many Individuals). Mentally ill inmates are not only often unfairly sentenced for non-violent crimes, but they are commonly mistreated by prison staff, deprived of proper treatment for their illnesses, and ultimately their stay only worsens their condition, leading to their speedy return to the system upon the expiration of their sentences. The sheer number of people with mental illnesses
Have you ever been to a mental institution? The novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest is about Randall McMurphy becoming a patient in a mental institution. McMurphy is a white-trash degenerate with many problems, but mental instability is not one of them. He is an alcoholic with a gambling problem that gets into fights. He was recently convicted of alleged rape. McMurphy, somehow, conned his way into being enrolled into the mental institution instead of going to a work farm for his actions, “the court ruled that I’m a psychopath… they tell me a psychopath’s a guy fights too much and fucks too much” (13). In the novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, Randall McMurphy’s character and the acute community change as they both interact with each other.
In Kesey’s 1950s novel ‘One Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest’ Nurse Ratched’s relationship with male patients is based upon differences they hold about gender and identity. Nurse Ratched is portrayed as a masculine misandrist figure that gains power from emasculation. She carries “no compact or lipstick or woman stuff, she’s got that bag full of a thousand parts she aims to use in her duties” . This implies nothing womanly about her as she prioritises her “duties”, suggesting that she aims to control her male patients by ridding her feminine qualities. In addition, she is shown in robotic with a chilling aura. This is evident when she slid “through the door with a gust of cold and locks the door behind her” . This indicates that as a power figure her only concern is controlling her male patients, making sure they are obedient and abiding by her rules. “Gust of cold” implies that by doing so she wholly ruins her relationship with the males due to her “cold” and callous methods. Daniel J. Vitkus states she is “the Big Nurse, an evil mother who wishes to keep and control her little boys (the men on the ward) under her system of mechanical surveillance and mind control.” Yet, can be argued that she is fulfilling her role of working as a Nurse within a mental institution. However Vitkus’s critique is similar to when McMurphy says “Mother Ratched, a ball-cutter?” McMurphy is a hyper masculine force against Ratched’s emasculating norms. Their relationship is essentially a power
What constitutes normal and abnormal is not universally agreed upon, but there are certain criteria to consider when evaluating abnormalities, which was pointed out in Rosenhan (1973). However, he questions the standards of sanity in society and the system that diagnoses the abnormal. One of the primary research questions looks at if a psychiatric diagnosis is reflective of the person or the environment. To attempt to answer this, 8 people (pseudopatients) with no history of mental issues checked themselves into a psychiatric hospital under the pretense that they were hearing voices. After they were admitted, they
Dramatic stories of people with mental health conditions appear pervasively in almost every media outlet, beginning generations ago, and continuing steadily in modern society. These themes--of violent madmen, hysterical witches, insane criminals, and every other generalization of the mentally ill--perpetuate the harmful misrepresentation and stigmatization of mental illness, which is a common element in modern everyday life. One of the greatest factors contributing to this situation today is the presence of said misconceptions in printed media--not just modern works, but also the appraised classics, such as William Shakespeare’s tragedy Macbeth and Mary Shelley’s gothic novel Frankenstein. Even as centuries pass and contemporary society advances, it is evident that ultimately, as the reader analyzes both Macbeth and Frankenstein, definitive British literature strengthens the negative stigma surrounding mental health, as it similarly misrepresents the legitimate issues regarding mental illness.
Our perspective of a stranger whom we’ve never met nor seen, but only heard of through the mouth of the enemy’s opinion, will inevitably align with the only version of the story we’ve heard. This sort of bias is found in Ken Kesey’s 1962 novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, with Nurse Ratched’s depiction through the narration by Chief Bromden. The reliability of Bromden’s perspective is questionable, as it is his interpretation of the world, rather than what it actually is.
We feel that One Flew over the Cuckoo’s nest is filled with many psychological connotations. This movie is set in a mental hospital where McMurphy was admitted to be psychologically evaluated because of violent behavior. Upon his arrival McMurphy noticed that the patients were very robot-like in their actions. The hospital is extremely structured where the patient’s daily life was monotonous. We will discuss the various connotations by answering the following questions that have been asked.