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Essay Substance

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Substance
As human beings we have the capabilities of thought and reasoning, which is why we have evolved the way we have. However one can never be to sure that what we think and what we reason is really truth. And that idea can lead a person asking certain questions; What is the nature of existence? What is the nature of reality and it’s principles? but then more questions follow within These; What are we touching? What are we looking at? What are these things interfering and altering our lives? Are they the same in reality as they are in our mind? What are these substances? Are they even substances? If they are real then why are they, and what are they? Many great philosophers tackled these questions. Philosophers such as Plato,
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He became a solipsist. After long meditations he came back to reality with the statement “I think therefore I am.” He saw everything to be substance but he categorized them and explained the relevance of each. The first few which are considered the (summa genera), which means the two highest kinds of things. Are the secondary and primary substances. For Descartes, secondary qualities arise from what he calls "objects of the senses," and primary qualities from "objects of mathematics." The following shows the connection:





| Objects Qualities

____________________________________________________________

Secondary | objects hardness, heat,

| of light, odor, color,

| senses taste, sound

|

Primary | objects quantity, shape

| of time, magnitude,

| mathematics

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The substance that exists that of which no other would exist, but do not coexist in the same sense, is God. However God is a substance univocally to the mind and the body, but it is how we have a known knowledge of substance. Therefore, there is a created substance, and a corporeal substance. These two substances prove reason enough that they both exist.
Baruch Spinoza refuted Descartes belief that God, mind, and body were all different substances and said that God and Nature existed as one. Spinoza believed that God is identical to
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