Summary Of Chapter 3 Of Wolf Tracks

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Wolf Tracks and the Náñez-Woodard Collection of Panamanian Popular Art
In chapter 3 of Wolf Tracks, Peter Szok argues that popular art is heavily influenced by the United States diaspora and the expansion of the city during the mid-twentieth century. During World War II, the United States opened an airfield near the Canal Zone to protect the canal from attacks by the Axis Powers. As a result, thousands of U.S. soldiers entered the Canal Zone, and the incorporation of soldiers into the city caused a second economic boom in Panama. Black artists saw this boom as an opportunity to challenge the mestizaje ideals held during the period of browning, which sought to highlight an ethnic unity and minimize blackness and black culture in society. In chapter 4 of Wolf Tracks, Szok addresses the key characteristics of popular art, including its ties to the community, hybridity, and sense of rhythm. The Náñez-Woodard Collection of Panamanian Popular Art confirms many of the arguments set forth by Wolf Tracks; features like the bold, vibrant colors utilized by the artists and the popular culture influences stand out in the photos. However, the photo collection also complicates a key factor expressed in Wolf Tracks; one does not experience or participate in audience interaction when analyzing the photos of the art alone.
Black Panamanian artists used various forms of public art to contest ethnic mixing and showcase their black culture. According to Wolf Tracks, the U.S. soldiers stationed

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