Super Bowl Scandal Analysis

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Moreover, the Super Bowl is one of the most anticipated events of each year in the United States because National Football League (NFL) fans patiently await the outcome of two teams about to compete for the National Championship title. Although the winner of the Super Bowl is usually the most important part of the game, the New England Patriots’ victory was not the highlight of the game in this particular Super Bowl. In the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show, where Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake shared the stage, an incident occurred at the end of their performance. Jackson had a wardrobe malfunction in which her right breast was exposed to all of the viewers of Super Bowl XXXVIII. This scandal caused a media frenzy throughout the entire…show more content…
Section 507 of this act made it illegal for minors to access any “indecent” or “inappropriate” material through the use of the Internet. One year later, cyber-liberties groups argued that this act was unconstitutional in the Supreme Court case Reno v. ACLU. Their argument was that the wording used in the act was too vague to set a definition of what is to be indecent, and the criminal penalties were too severe for just the violation of this act. In addition, the CDA did not have enough power to actually censor the large amount of indecent speech used by adults in cyberspace. Semonche states, “The majority concluded that the denial to adult of indecent communications went further than ‘necessary to limit the access of minors’” (Semonche, 2006, p.218). In addition, Cannon mentions “The Supreme Court held in Sable Communication of California, Inc. v. FCC that indecency law and the First Amendment cannot be uniformly applied across the board to all communication media” (Cannon, 1996, p.76). The Supreme Court ruled that this type of censorship would be a violation of the freedom of speech provided by the First Amendment. According to Hull (1999), “The overturning of the CDA set a clear precedent for the safeguarding of constitutional liberties in cyberspace” (p.103). The fighting of Congress to end indecency against children did not stop…show more content…
This act did not specify the difference between pornography and web sites that talk about sexual education. With this the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), the Electronic Privacy Information Center and cyber-space groups challenged the act under the violation of the First Amendment (Hull, 1999, p.33). Also, it prevents adults to receive any sexual content they want to access. With these allegations, the Ninth District Court allowed an injunction of the act in February of 1999 against its enforcement. As a result, the court argued that there were less restrictive ways to reduce freedom of speech, subsequently using filters or blocking certain keywords without denying adults the access of sexual content. The argument was that filters can do what COPA could not. This method can also filter pornography not only in USA but around the world. These filters would give parents the power to monitor their children’s activity in the internet. It was also required of school and public libraries to use these filters to prevent any indecency to children (Paxton, 2008, p.108). Although the act was not enforced completely, the Supreme Court did allow one of part of the act to pass, giving Congress the power to regulate the internet through the use of
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