Symptoms And Treatment Of A Dry Eye Syndrome

1515 WordsDec 9, 20167 Pages
Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca, also known as Dry Eye Syndrome, is a commonly diagnosed condition in eye care clinics, especially among older adults (1). The condition occurs when the surface of the eye becomes irritated and the tear reflexes are not sufficient to wash the irritation away. The immune system is then activated to attack the irritation, and T-cells begin to release cytokines onto the ocular surface. Prolonged exposure to cytokines can cause damage to the tissues of the eye, including the lacrimal glands that are responsible for producing tears (2). The damage causes more inflammatory responses to be activated, causing a cycle that leads to reduced tear production and consequently the symptoms of Dry Eye Syndrome, including burning, redness, stinging, or a scratchy sensation in the eye (3). Since Dry Eye Syndrome is associated with an inflammatory response, it was hypothesized that a potential treatment for Dry Eye could involve disrupting the inflammatory cascade using a neuromodulator that inhibited a component of the inflammatory response mechanism. In 2002, the Food and Drug Administration approved the distribution of a new drug designed to treat dry eye syndrome. The drug, Cyclosporine Ophthalmic Emulsion, has the brand name Restasis and is manufactured by Allergan, Inc. The drug is in the form of a white opaque homogenous emulsion that is administered as an eye drop directly onto the ocular surface (4). The active ingredient in the drug is cyclosporine,
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