At the present moment there are no medications that alleviate the core symptoms of autism. However for children who are aggressive, self harming, hyperactive and engage in repetitive behaviours there are two medications that have been found to be effective; risperidone and aripiprazole. One of these medications could then be prescribed to reduce the engagement in repetitive behaviours since the boy does not exhibit any other symptoms. However this is only for a short period of time until the other therapies can be started. After all, there is a huge risk in taking these medications which is the possible development of diabetes . Applied behaviour analysis Secondly, applied behaviour analysis (ABA) has been proven to be effective in dealing with the core symptoms of autism. It utilizes techniques such as operant conditioning, incidental teaching, shaping for positive reinforcement, discrimination learning, task analysis, among the many to teach the child positive behaviours. Behavioural interventions such as ABA have found to work best in autism cases. However since behavioural techniques work better when the child is smaller we must use other approaches to compensate for that limitation (Matson et al., 2012; Zachor & Itzchak, 2010). Eclectic approach Along with ABA, the eclectic approach could also be used. It integrates philosophies from different approaches to provide a combined method of treatment. In this approach, there are many types of
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In Chapter four it talks about how people that have autism are concrete thinkers. Before reading this chapter I was unaware of much of our social language is figurative. This is something that a child with autism would struggle with. The author makes a good point when saying “you wouldn’t dream of issuing instructions to you child in a foreign language but English can seem that way” ( Notbohm 66). This put it in to words how hard it can be for a child with autism to grasp the language people use. The author identifies four things that people need to watch out for when speaking with a child with autism. The first thing was to avoid idioms and cliches, so this means instead of saying “something smells fishy” try saying “this does seem right to me”. It gives a better and clearer
Autism is a disease that is being diagnosed today more than ever before. In fact, as of 2014 the statistics for diagnosis of autism are one in sixty-eight children, with diagnosis being much more common in boys (Autism Speaks, 2016a). While there are many theories about what causes autism, there is currently not any proven predictor of what will cause this disease to develop (Landrigan, 2010). Since prevention is not possible at this time, it is extremely beneficial and important to research understanding and treatment of those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). There are many avenues of treatment for ASD, but one method that has received significant attention is applied behavior analysis (ABA). The goal of this research article is to explore the definition of applied behavior analysis, its development over time, and its application to real life. Some questions that will be explored are when and where did ABA originate, how has it developed over time, and what researchers contributed new findings to this intervention. Additionally, the methods that have been developed over time to implement ABA will be discussed, specifically with their application to autism and individuals diagnosed with ASD. Finally, there will be a discussion of how skills that individuals with ASD gain from applied behavioral analysis can be applied to a classroom setting.
ASD is an abbreviation of Autism Spectrum Disorder, a disorder characterized by “social-interaction difficulties, communication challenges and a tendency to engage in repetitive behaviors”. ASD has become so prevalent that “1 in 68 children are identified with ASD” a number which is higher among certain racial minorities (CDC Press Release). While there are many therapies such as pharmaceutical or behavior correcting therapy, it is music which shows much promise in aiding children with autism. From its start in prehistoric humans to today’s clinical and classroom settings music has had a profound impact on the individual; well documented studies and
Autism is a brain disorder that is characterized by slow and difficult comprehension of spoken and non-verbal communication and repetition of behaviors. Autism is normally noticed in the first two years of a child (Myers & Johnson, 2007). Asperger syndrome is an autistic disorder that has almost the same similarities with autism. People with Asperger syndrome have little comprehension of the world and its surroundings and poor communication with other people. People with Asperger syndrome are hard to recognize, as they do not show on their outward appearances. They are average or above average intellectually and have fewer problems in terms of speech and specific learning disabilities unlike in autism. These difficulties include dyslexia, epilepsy, and attention
References Altern, J. (2006). Abnormally High Plasma Levels of Vitamin 6 in Children with Autism Not Taking Supplements Compared to Controls not Taking Supplements. US National Library of Medicine. National Institute of Health. Complement Med, 12 (1), 59-63.
This paper focuses on applied behavior analysis (ABA). The concept of ABA in definition is the use of knowledge gained within science of behavior to improve behaviors that are socially crucial. The researchers of this paper focus not the importance of having parents use ABA training when working with their children who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There has been a large amount of research done on ABA techniques and it is something that has been used in many different fields of practice. Areas such as social work, education, medicine, etc have benefited from the ABA approach. Now it is important to distinguish what the views of parents using ABA are.
Before completing the assignment of reading “Thinking in Pictures,” by Temple Grandin, I did not have much knowledge about autism. My only understanding was autism was some sort of neurological disorder that is seen similar to mentally handicapped individuals to someone with little understanding, like myself. I am very thankful to have been given an assignment like this one that gives me more knowledge of something I should already have in my line of work (though I am sure that was the whole purpose of the assignment, to educate the ignorant). I now have a better understanding of the cause, learning process and functioning of different levels of this defect.
Autism Spectrum Disorder. ASD. Autism. When people hear any of these, it’s either “avoid that person at all costs”, “be super sympathetic”, “pretend to be their friend” or “I have no idea what that is”. My best friend and illustrator of my second book, has no idea what autism is. I tried explaining it to her. It’s very hard to explain how you feel, first of all. To put the fact that you are autistic makes it even more difficult. It doesn’t bother me too much that she doesn’t know. As long as she knows that I truly am a good person, we’re good.
The Applied Behavioral Analysis model, or (ABA) as it is commonly referred to, has been in practice for many years, touching the lives of many people of all ages, backgrounds, and degrees of the Autism spectrum. As with anything, there is a considerable amount of misinformation projecting a negative view of ABA. These views have questioned the protocol, application, and necessity of the ABA. The following is some information and facts to hopefully make clear what ABA not only does, but what it stands for as a therapy that will continue to help those in need.
In a wide-ranging study, Gresham, Beebe-Frankenberger & MacMillan (1999) reviewed and critiqued several of the most cited treatment programs for children with autism, including Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA). In essence, they concluded that there was no one flawlessly reliable treatment protocol for autism. However, they found that virtually all programs reviewed, showed some degree of developmental gain in each of its participants. Particularly when it came to measurable IQ gain. With direct reference to the Applied Behavioural Analysis approach, it would appear that there is not sufficient evidence to promote it as being a superior or universal treatment program for all children with
According to “Autism’s Next Wave” by Lydia Denworth, scientists have discovered a new way to help people with autism. This groundbreaking discovery helps patients who suffer from autism, which is a disorder with no proven biological treatments. TMS, an acronym for transcranial magnetic stimulation, uses electromagnetic waves and a magnetic field to temporarily “fix” some patients’ autism symptoms by altering the way the patient’s brain cells communicate. This therapy is similar to electroconvulsive therapy, which was used in the 1930s to treat depression. Unlike electroconvulsive therapy (which used electric shocks to trigger seizures), TMS isn’t painful.
The hallmarks of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involve marked deficits in social interaction as well as engagement in repetitive behaviors and language difficulties (Leblanc, Richardson, & Warnie, 2005). Although autism can have a profound impact on the capabilities and functioning of the individual, emerging research indicates that applied behavioral analysis (ABA) can be an effective tool for addressing many of the deficits that children with ASD face (Boutot & Myles, 2016). In fact, emerging research indicates that when ABA is utilized for the treatment of young children with ASD many of the challenges faced by this group can be ameliorated (Boutot & Myles, 2016). With these issues in mind the current investigation considers the seven elements of ABA identified by Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) in their seminal article on applied behavioral analysis and their application to individuals with ASD. Through a critical review of the seven elements of ABA in relation to ASD it will be possible to illustrate how this approach can be effective for improving outcomes for individuals diagnosed with autism.
A time when I was challenged was when I spoke at my schools wellness conference and addressed my feelings about autism. When I first received my diagnosis, I was afraid to tell anyone because I knew about the stereotypes and I thought I would become a joke. However, as I became more comfortable in my own skin and I came to terms with my diagnosis, I slowly began to tell my closest friends about Asperger’s syndrome. Alongside school, I would attend appointments with a speech language pathologist who taught me how to cope and self-regulate when I started to have panic attacks. Eventually, I was able to educate other autistic children the techniques that help me. Moreover, I taught them how to self-declare.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is not curable but it can be controlled using a certain type of treatments. There are various types of treatments used by parental, caregiver and clinical. The treatments can be separated into behavior and communication approaches, medication and complementary and alternative medicine. Applied behavioral analysis is a treatment approach that is used in many schools and treatment clinics (Foxx, 2008). There are different types of ABA and one of it is early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI). EIBI is the most effective treatment used for young children from birth to 3 years old as the services consist of treatments to assist the child to talk, walk and interact with others (Matson & Goldin, 2014). Discrete trials teaching (DTT) is one of the key teaching methods in EIBI. An efficient approach for teaching children with ASD has been shown by DTT and it plays an important role in language, social and academic skills. DTT has a sequence of discrete learning units that allows the skills to broken down into smaller units when teaching a new skill. DTT consist of three-term possibilities,