To be a retrovirus is not the same as a virus. HIV is a retrovirus and it is classified as this because HIV’s genetic information is being enclosed by RNA instead of DNA. HIV targets a specific cell within the immune system and those are the T cells or also known as CD4+ cells. HIV causes immune dysfunction by destroying these cells. HIV contains a glycoprotein, called gp120 that is vital for the virus to enter the T cell. It attaches to the surface, called the CD4+. As it attaches, the retrovirus’ membrane fuses to the lymphocyte cell membrane, therefore gaining entry into the cell.
Once an entry is initiated and completed, HIV has the ability to replicate into thousands of copies of itself by using the host cells resources and the RNA. The RNA, which is two stranded, converts into DNA through an enzyme titled reverse transcriptase. When the DNA is set within the host’s genome, it allows replication to occur. Furthermore, the new viral copies are made and the host cell ruptures and dies. As a result, the multiple viruses are released and continue to infect more of the T cells, weakening the immune system. The normal count of T cells is about 800-1200 cells/mm3. For a while, T cells can be initially replaced, but HIV infection is a slowly progressive disease and soon enough the body becomes exhausted, leading to a decline in T-cell count. There are several prevention measures that can be taken in order to avoid getting HIV. Those include
CD4 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infects cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes (T cells) and macrophages. HIV has an envelope and contains two copies of single-stranded RNA as the genome. Within the viral capsid are important viral enzymes called reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease. The HIV virus has a spike protein that is called gp120, and the host cell receptor is CD4+. HIV belongs to a class of viruses called retroviruses. Retroviruses are RNA viruses, and to replicate or reproduce, they must make a DNA copy of their RNA through transcription and translation. It is the DNA genes that allow the
HIV is a sexually transmitted disease that attacks the body’s immune system by diminishing CD4 cells that help prevent and fight illnesses. HIV is a virus, more specifically a retrovirus that transcribes its RNA into the host cell’s DNA, and is spread by a transfer in bodily fluids namely drug injection and condomless sex. As the disease progresses into acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the virus continues eliminating CD4 cells until the immune system becomes virtually ineffective . Scientists first identified HIV in 1985 in response to the AIDS crisis plaguing the United States . With no cure yet available, those affected with HIV must rely on antiretroviral drug therapy to decrease their chances of developing AIDS .
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) if not treated (About HIV/AIDS, n.d). Unlike some other viruses, the human body cannot fully rid itself of HIV completely, even with treatment. Simply put, once you contract HIV, you have it for life. This disease attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cells), which help the immune system stave off infections. When left to its own devices, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body, making the person more likely to
“HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left untreated, HIV can lead to the disease AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). HIV attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cells), which help the immune system fight off infections” (AIDS.Gov, 2016).
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects the cells of the immune system. In particular, HIV attacks and destroys the T helper lymphocytes, or T-cells, which are crucial to the immune system and immune response. (These cells are also called CD4-positive lymphocytes because HIV uses the protein CD4, present on the surface of the cell, to attach itself and pry its way into the cell.) Each day, your body produces millions of CD4+ T-cells to help maintain your immunity and fight off invading viruses and germs. Once HIV is in your body, the virus is able to copy itself over and over, increasing its ability to kill CD4+ T-cells. Soon, infected cells outnumber healthy T-cells.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) puts its own genome directly into a host cell during the time of infection (Ebina et al, 2013). This can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) if it is left untreated. AIDS is caused by a retrovirus. HIV can remain dormant for years once its DNA is in the host cell (Fessenden, 2015). HIV infects
In order for the genetic material of the virus to integrate into the hots DNA, it must be changed by an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase16: an enzyme called integrase is then activated as the virus new genetic material enters into the nucleus of the CD4 cells, then acts to integrate itself into the genetic material of the host cell16 and when the host cell becomes active it then uses the host machinery to generate or replicate more of its genetic material thus creating a much longer protein1, 16, 17; a protease then acts to cut the HIV protein into individual proteins. Viral assembly then takes place16, 17, the virus will then bud and then be released into the blood stream where it will go on and attack the CD4 cells and the process will take place again16. Therefore individual infected with HIV becomes HIV positive and will always be HIV
HIV is a human immunodeficiency virus for which the virus is responsible for HIV infections. The virus attacks the immune system making it impossible for the immune system to fight off infections and diseases. HIV is a lentil retrovirus with a genetic complexity not seen previously among any kind of retrovirus. It operates in an inconspicuous nature comprising several parts: HIV destroys immunologically important white blood cells called T-helper cells (CD4+.) It goes inside a host cell DNA, where it can remain stays for extended periods and it inactively infects cells of monocyte lineage that can move throughout the body. It also has an affinity to nerve cells making it neurotropic and its antigenic biological properties are heterogeneous. However, HIV is distinct from acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS, which is the full syndrome that consequently damages the immune system. AIDS is a stage when an
Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global issue that has infected an estimated 35 million people living today1. The strain HIV-1 has been of experimental concern for years in hopes of a cure. This retrovirus directly infects the immune system by binding helper T-cells via the CD4 receptor. This allows for integration of the viral RNA into the T-cells, and causes the immune system to weaken by killing these immune cells. Advancements in research led to the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for treatment, however this does not cure the patient of HIV but it suppresses the viral replication of HIV-1 to very low levels2.
At that point, the following stride for the HIV disease is getting its hereditary material into the host 's cell 's DNA. Ignatavicius (2013) states that "HIV fits in with a group of infections called retroviruses; its hereditary material is single-stranded RNA" (p.359). The hereditary material of the human cell is twofold stranded DNA. With the goal HIV should contaminate and assume control over a human cell, the hereditary material must be the same. HIV conquers this issue by bringing a chemical called reverse transcriptase, which changes over RNA to DNA. This makes HIV have the same hereditary material as the human cell DNA. This finishes the disease of the CD4 T-cell. HIV debilitates the safe framework by expelling some CD4 T-cells from flow. It makes that range a HIV manufacturing plant where it can keep on duplicating its infection.
HIV is a disease which eventually kills ones immune system, and as time progresses it leads to AIDS. When the HIV enters a human, it attaches itself to a CD4 receptor and continues to enter the T-Cell. It then reprograms the cell to produce more HIV using the enzyme, reverse transcriptase. The HIV then leaves the host cell, but kills it before it leaves. Then, the HIV cells attach their selves to new T cells, and infect those as well. After about 12 weeks, the HIV antibodies appear in the humans blood stream. The disease starts off with a fever, sweats, headache, sore throats and enlarged lymph nodes. Once the CD4 cell count decreases to 200 um, AIDS gets developed and the low T count cell lowers ones immune system. Then, the
The virus which is responsible for the disease of AIDS or the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is named as HIV or the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is one of the members of viruses called the retrovirus. Explain this later These viruses are capable of duplicating the RNA into DNA.The virus has two exact copies of single-stranded RNA as the basic genome in the very center of the organism. The genome is surrounded by a membrane that is made of membrane-bound proteins and lipids. One of the membrane-bound proteins is called the T-cells which help the virus becoming physically attached. When it became attached, the virus that is brought inside by the T-cell could result for the internal core to become exposed and damaged. Then the enzyme attached to the RNA, starts to make a base-pair single-strand copy of the RNA into DNA. The single strand of DNA is also duplicated by the same enzyme to form double-stranded DNA. This DNA enters one of the 46 chromosomes within our cells and used it as pattern to produce new virus particles. These new virus particles can be released from the infected cell and infect the adjacent cells.) HIV can hide for a very long period of time in the cells of the body and attacks the main part of the immune system – the T-cells or the CD4 cells. HIV cannot enter unbroken skin. HIV can be transmitted through direct exchange of body fluids. Sexual intercourse is the most common form of HIV transmission. Blood to blood contact, such as sharing needles for
HIV, a lentivirus causes AIDS through interaction of the different cells in the body mainly the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) molecules on cells and other cellular receptors (Levy, 1993) particularly responsible for the host’s immune system. Once HIV entry has occurred, the virus starts to destroy the host’s CD4 cells and replicates using an enzyme called reverse transcriptase and converting its ribonucleic acid (RNA) into a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (Heymann, 2015). In addition, the ability for the HIV to break the long chains of protein that form the virus using an enzyme protease promote viral replication in the same manner as the body’s own immune system.
An enzyme in HIV called reverse transcriptase is necessary to catalyze this conversion of viral RNA into DNA. Once the genetic material of HIV has been changed into DNA, this viral DNA enters the host cell nucleus where it can be integrated into the genetic material of the cell. The enzyme integrase catalyzes this process, once the viral DNA is integrated into the genetic material of the host: it is possibe that HIV may persist in a latent state for many years. Activation of the host cells results in the transcription of viral DNA into messenger (mRNA), which is then translated into viral proteins.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus, whose natural progression of infection leads to a severely compromised immune system known as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). At the end of