Taking a Look at Trickling Filters

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Trickling filters are one of the oldest types of biological filters. They have a simple design in which media is placed in a container that has a partially open bottom so water drains out [45]. The biofilter container can be constructed of a variety of materials, including plastic, wood, glass, metal, concrete, or any other nontoxic substance. The size of the biofilter directly determines the carrying capacity of fish in the system. Larger biofilters have a great ammonia assimilation capacity and can support greater fish production [43].
From the fish tank water with high ammonia flows into the trickle filter. Since a water-trickles are down over the media, the large surface area and oxygen from the atmosphere allow nitrification bacteria to oxidize ammonia to nitrite and nitrate. Afterwards, the water exits the trickle filter with much reduced ammonia content (see Figure 11) [36].
Trickling filters are rugged and easy to operate. They have the ability to treat a wide variety of nutrient levels (see Figure 11). One of the big advantages of a trickling filter is that the water can leave with more oxygen than it entered. Because trickling filters have a large air water interface, they also act as strippers to remove CO2, H2S, N2 or other undesirable volatile gasses. The other advantages of trickle filter are low maintenance, self-aerating, moderate capital cost and medium head application. The only major drawback of trickling filters is the energy cost required to pump the
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