Teachers have an important task of translating learning theories into practice. Knowledge about learning theories allows teachers to consider different approaches and apply various techniques and valuable strategies in specific contexts and with specific learners to promote learning. This essay will provide an insight into three well-known theories of how children learn. It will examine Behaviourism, Social Constructivism and Humanism and how these learning theories underpin a range of pedagogical approaches to teaching and learning and promote inclusive practice. Effective teachers are aware of different learning theories that influence classroom practice on a daily basis. According to Pritchard (2014), teachers must have an understanding …show more content…
Skinner believed that behaviour is shaped and maintained by a reinforcing stimulus and that schedules of reinforcement are important factors in the learning process. There are many situations in the classroom where a behaviourist approach is likely to work well. For example, when I teach, I have started to pick out students who are making the right choices throughout the lesson. I call attention to the student who is doing the right thing and use verbal praise, which is quite an effective way to let other students realise what the expected learning behaviour is. The Year 6 students in the class are aware of the school’s reward system; ten credits lead to one merit, which is recorded in their merit book. They are also aware that bad behaviour in the class or on the playground will be followed by negative consequences. To warn against unwanted behaviour, I have seen teachers use negative reinforcers such as verbal warnings, timeouts and losing privileges. In a behaviourist classroom, learning depends on systematic reinforcement of correct behaviours. The students have a relatively passive role in the learning process, while the teacher is the transmitter of knowledge who assesses, corrects and reinforces pupil responses. Pollard (2014, p. 36) suggests that through this type of teaching, subject expertise can be transmitted in a coherent, ordered and logical way because there is a high degree of adult
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By giving a reward, such as dessert or pocket money to the child when completing homework, it was more likely that this behaviour would be repeated and strengthened. Another thing is the reward system in schools nowadays for good behaviour, where you would receive a star or something similar for behaving the desired way in the classroom. What Skinner showed was that all kinds of behaviours can be shaped and built step by step.
Behaviourist approaches – children learn as a result of what they see and what happens to them.
There are, though, some similarities between the two theorists. Both dealt with the concept of human motivation. And Skinner, unlike pure behaviourists, did accept that internal processes should be taken into account. Both believed that feedback on actions is important, and both are still, to this day, highly influential in the This literature review will identify two key theories, within the field of education and learning. Consideration will be given to their similarities, differences, strengths and weaknesses, and how they impact on learners when used in practice. The review will examine both humanism and behaviourism, focusing on the work and findings of Abraham Maslow and Burrhus Frederic Skinner. While both theorists have had a profound influence on developmental psychology and education, they hold very different theories and applications.
This assignment is going to discuss why England has a National Curriculum for primary education and to what extent does the National Curriculum 2014 for English reflect current theories of teaching and learning. In the first part of this assignment I will consider: why England has a National Curriculum for primary education, the history that led to the production of the National Curriculum, why a new National Curriculum was introduced in 2014, and the advantages and disadvantages of having a National Curriculum. In the second part of this assignment, I will focus on the new curriculum framework for English, more specifically, the framework for reading and speaking and listening. I will explore the three main current theories of teaching and learning that the frameworks for reading/speaking and listening reflect: Behaviourism, Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism. I will look closely at the principles of the three theories, analyse their impact in the class room and evaluate their overall importance on teaching and learning. Overall, this assignment will give an overview of the progression of the National Curriculum and the current theories of teaching and learning that are impacting classrooms today.
Skinner believed this was important in learning as adults teach children on a positive negative reinforcement basis, e.g if a child is good they receive a treat (positive reinforcement) and the child is likely to repeat the behaviour, but if the child is bad they receive a punishment (negative reinforcement) and the behaviour is likely to stop. Although both Pavlov’s and skinners research was performed on animals so how much can we contrast from the behaviour of an animal to the behaviour of a human. In my placement when a child is naughty there are methods used to discourage this behaviour, when a child is naughty there name gets put on the ‘thinking lily pad’ this indicates a child has been bad. The reinforcement is negative as no child wants to be there, whereas if a child is good there name gets put on the ‘fantastic flower’ this positive reinforcement encourages the children to behave and contribute to the lesson, if all children in the class are on the fantastic flower then a dragon fly gets moved to the top of the display board, when this has happened 6 times all children get a treat. This encourages the whole class to work together to behave, it works as when
B.F. Skinner’s theory of behaviorism claims that behavior is directed by environmental reinforcements, some natural and some intentionally applied. Skinner proposed three possible consequences of any behavior: reinforcements which are consequences which increase the likelihood of behavior (such as praise or food), punishments which tend to decrease behavior (such as a frown or a traffic ticket), and the lack of reinforcement or punishment which also tends to decrease behavior (such as no response to the punch line of a joke). He also holds that reinforcers can be learned (money becomes valuable because of it 's
According to these conceptual models, The behaviour affects the children’s characteristics in the classrooms in which they learn, in addition to their experiences within these contexts (Creemers & Reezigt, 1996). Consecutively, children’s learning environments produce proximal processes and interactions that drive learning as well as the behavioural characteristics of other children within them, (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998). absolutely the behavioural characteristics of their classmates may affect an individual
Prompt 1: Learning Theories: Using the learning theorists we have discussed--Piaget, Vygotsky, Kohlberg, and/or Erikson--Explain the behaviors, actions, learning, etc. that you see in your classroom. For example: A la Vygotsky, you might observe the classroom interactions for evidence of how you or a peer or the teacher provided enough scaffolding to improve a child’s performance. Or, you might describe a child according to Piaget’s stages of intellectual development or Erikson’s Psychosocial development. Be specific and provide examples.
In this essay I will discuss the comparisons and differences of the three models of theory and learning as identified by MacNaughton, Conforming, Reforming and Transforming (MacNaughton, 2003). This essay will look at how these theories are explained and can be applied individually or together within the learning pedagogy. My discussion will be of a reflective nature and include how I have understood these three models in relation to the early childhood learning environment and how I may relate them to my own developing education philosophy. Each theory will be discussed with a focus on one or two particular theorist. For Conforming I will look at theorists from both the nature and nurture perspective, Gesell and Skinner. The Reforming
Implementing developmental concepts and theories in a classroom can increase student achievement. Success within a classroom starts with the success of a teacher. According to Barbara Blake and Tambra Pope, “teacher must develop a better understanding of their students’ cognitive development, which will lead to the needs of the whole child being satisfied.” (Blake B. & Pope T., 2008). Educators must comprehend how an individual’s mind processes information from thinking to perceiving to remembering to learning. Grasping the comprehension of a student’s mental process and constructing suitable lessons, “using developmental instructional techniques, teachers have been able to increase the test scores of children in public schools.” (Blake B.
Skinner (1951) argues that the principles of operant conditioning can be used to produce extremely complex behaviour if rewards and punishments are delivered in such a way as to encourage a student to get closer to the desired behaviour. In order to do this, the conditions required to receive the reward should shift each time the student moves a step closer to the desired behaviour. Attention from parents is reinforcement, often used as a reward for good behaviour. However, if parents are not providing enough attention to a child then they may begin to seek attention in other areas, such as the classroom. Teachers often give more attention to a misbehaved child, so disruptive behaviour is a better strategy for attracting attention, resulting in Aiden being the centre of attention from the negative responses and punishment given by the teacher, the attention seeking behaviour is reinforced. Aiden should be rewarded with something he finds positive and each time his behaviour improves the rewards should shift in which he receives the reward. When the reinforcement of the desired behaviour is acknowledged by Aiden he will understand there will also be punishment for his
The idea behind reinforcement is that and action can be influenced by either a punishment or a reward. In the case of the Skinner box, the rat would do and action (press a lever) and would receive a reward (food) for performing the action. He got bolder with the idea. Skinner began to bring his findings into a classroom setting. He demonstrated that children would have more incentive to progress when they had a positive note when they got a question correct. It started with easier problems that they could already answer and moved to more difficult ones. The children started to show more growth in learning then they ever had before. Reinforcement is commonly used in schools today as a way to benefit
In this class educators read, researched, and possibly changed their thinking on the following three theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Throughout these theories educators must include the social cognitive theory. This paper will discuss each theory as to an educator’s thoughts and how they are applied throughout daily teaching in the classroom.
In their explanation Ertmer and Newby (2013) point out the essentials of learning theories and how they assists individuals or group of people to learn. Further, Ertmer and Newby (2013) endorses learning theories as foundation and prerequisite for strategies that instructional designers need when developing those techniques that facilitate learning. Many experts has singled out the three learning theories namely; cognitivism, behaviorism, and constructivism which have provided explicit understanding of the learning process. Among the first theories which according to Driscoll (2005) was curved from the field of psychology was behaviorism. Behaviorism right from the 20th century has concentrated on how stimulus together with reinforcement affect
The case study that I chose was the case of “The Solar System”. Out of all the three lesson plans, I found Mr. Johnson’s lesson plan to be the most interesting and elaborate. It also included innovative ways to touch on multiple learning styles using both text and visuals.