The Biological And Psychological Theories Of Crime And Criminal Behavior

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Crime is adaptation to life stress. It is best understood in terms of the manner in which the individual experiences the biological, psychological and socially determined situations of his existence. (Halleck, 1967, p. 63) The modern police department was born out of urban mob violence that tormented the nation’s cities during the nineteenth century. The new police departments were replacements for the night-watch systems and relegated constables and sheriffs to serving court orders and running jails. Early police agencies were corrupt, brutal, and inefficient. (Walker, Popular Justice, 61) While some people are predisposed to criminal activity. The predisposition to crime is formed from the biological and psychological theories of crime and criminal behavior. The earliest studies on delinquents and criminal conduct sought to explain the presence of criminal behavior based on intuitions obtained from the biological sciences. This is not to suggest that biological theories are neutral in social, psychological, or environmental correlates; rather, the organic approach to delinquency and crime believes that the physical, neuropsychological, and chemical components of human nature offer more persuasive evidence than do all other alternatives. (Arrigo 8) The origin of human actions include aggressive, violent, and even criminal behavior – reside within the personality structure or cognitive processes of the individual. In this way delinquency and crime are not reducible to
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