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The Course Of Human Evolution

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The course of human evolution can be represented by subsequent development of:
1. Australopithecus as the common anthropoid ancestor of the distinct group of hominids
2. Pithecanthropus as the earliest members of Homo also called Homo Habilis or Homo Erectus
3. Palaeoanthropus or Homo Neanderthalensis as the closest predecessor of Homo Sapiens
4. Homo Sapiens as the species to which all modern human beings belong and is the only one from genus Homo that is not extinct.
According to modern concepts primates evolved from earliest insect-eating mammals. Based on the study of common characteristics and features it can be said that all apes came from primates. Not all primates developed into apes. Even apes belongs to primates, they are very
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Timeline Fossil form Brain volume
(cm3) Major features
30 million years ago Dryopithecus Less than 350 Earliest great apes.
Spent most of its life in trees.
Live in herd
10-14 million years ago Ramapithecus 350 – 400 The earliest human ancestor.
Still live in herd.
Spread from forests into open grassland for hunting.
Small ape-like creature which probably walked upright and used hands for food and defense.
Continue to live in herd.
4,5-1,75 million years ago Australopithecus about 500 Continue to spend much time in the trees but lived on the ground.
Lived in family groups.
Using a variety of objects as tools.
First evidence of speech and communication
2,6 million.-600000 years ago Homo Habilis 650-850 Evidence of the manufacture of stone tools.
Lived in family groups.
Might have built first shelters.
1,6 million.-400000 years ago Homo Erectus 1100-1200 Upright human
Had long skull, protruding jaw, no chin, thick brow ridges.
Lived in family groups.
Made more sophisticated tools.
Developed more advanced speech.
Was able to use and control fire.
400000 – 50000 years ago Homo neandertalensis Up to 1500 Appearance very similar to a modern human.
Evidence of spiritual and social development.
Less than 50000 years ago Cromagnons
(Homo Sapiens) On average 1400-1500 Abstract thinking,
Developed communication using
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