Baker, E. H., Sanchez, L. A., Nock, S. L., & Wright, J. D. (2009). Covenant marriage and the sanctification of gendered marital roles. Journal Of Family Issues, 30(2), 147-178.
This article contains research on the deinstitutionalization of marriage and the changing gender roles by focusing on a unique group of marriages. The authors use quantitative and qualitative research data from previous studies. The article reveals that covenants are more traditional than standards across religious, marital, and gender attitudes. It discusses covenant-married couples as opposed to other married couples (homosexuals). “Qualitative analyses suggest that covenants see their marital status as a powerful symbol to publicly display their beliefs about …show more content…
The author defines “sex-typed” as a group that possesses gender characteristics that we typically assign to other genders. That being said gay men are typically perceived to be more feminine than straight men. The author also discusses lesbians but for the sake of this study I will only be covering the other. The author also explores how people perceive the level of masculinity and femininity of people whose sexual orientation is ambiguous, and whether there is a difference in perception depending on whether the target is male or female. The results from this study suggests that people 's perceptions of the degree to which a bisexual individual is masculine or feminine depend on how masculinity and femininity are measured in their communities. However, there is also some support for the concept that bisexual people are generally perceived to be androgynous as opposed to cross sex-typed.
Holz, I., & Gibson, R. (2009). Gendered relationships on television: portrayals of same-sex and heterosexual couples. Mass Communication & Society, 12(2), 63-104.
This article covers the belief that intimate heterosexual couples often exhibit power imbalances in gender role behaviors, with one partner more dominant and the other more submissive. This exhibition is different for gay couples as it is unclear whether the same is true for their relationships. It is suggested that television portrays both heterosexual and homosexual couples as gendered. This content
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
The representation of the LGBT community in the film industry has long been a topic of much debate. In her article, “It Ain’t Easy Being Bisexual on TV,” Amy Zimmerman addresses this topic with specific interest on bisexual representation. By appealing to the logic of her audience, using an informal tone, and referring to relatable content, Zimmerman constructs an argument which persuades readers of The Daily Beast that the film industry is unfairly and inaccurately representing bisexuals. However, her argument holds little influence over those who are not movie fans or The Daily Beast readers.
In Andrew J. Cherlin’s essay “American Marriage In Transition”, he discusses how marriage in America is evolving from the universal marriage. Cherlin’s definition of the universal marriage in his essay is the man is the breadwinner of the household and the woman is the homemaker. In the 20th century according to Cherlin, the meaning of marriage has been altered such as the changing division of labor, childbearing outside of marriage, cohabitation, gay marriage and the result of long- term cultural and material trends (1154). During the first transition of marriage, Cherlin discusses how in America, Europe, and Canada the only socially accepted way to have sexual relations with a person and to have children is to be married (1154). The second change in marriage occurred in 2000, where the median age of marriage in the United States for men is 27 and women is 25 (1155). Many young adults stayed single during this time and focused on their education and starting their careers. During the second change, the role of law increasingly changed, especially in the role of law in divorce (1155). It is proven in today’s research marriage has a different definition than what it did back in the 1950’s. Today marriage can be defined as getting married to the same gender or getting remarried to someone who already has kids. The roles in a marriage are evolving to be a little more flexible and negotiable. However, women still do a lot of the basic household chores and taking care of the
In Stephen Mays’ essay “What about Gender Roles in Same-sex Relationships?” published in They Say I Say, the author discusses how people often assign gender roles automatically, even with gay and lesbian couples. Mays stresses the concept of femininity and masculinity, and also shows the difference in their roles, supports them with vivid imagery, and gives a rare example of gay male preferences, all while using the correct diction when referring to personal experiences. Although the author reiterates gender roles and their effect on same-sex relationships, he gives clear examples that support the idea of masculine or feminine qualities.
The uprising of gay and lesbian entertainment in shows such as “Will & Grace,” Showtime series “Queer As Folk” and “The L Word,” has overthrown the former cookie cutter husband and wife TV series. Gay and lesbian affairs in the media emerged quickly after the coming out of Ellen Degeneres in her hit sitcom, “Ellen.” The comedian now has her own daytime talk show, achieving mainstream popularity for obvious reasons: she’s funny, down-to-earth, and openly gay. In earlier decades homosexuality was previously limited to a closet of taboos, where no one knew about it, and no one admitted to it. Primetime programming would never house a show in which gay men and lesbian women openly discussed their sex lives and sexual preferences, nor a show that based its entire plotline on gay and lesbian couples.
For the past 3 decades the views surrounding marriage has undergone a great deal of change (Lennox, 2015, p. 1101). This shift is due to the continual discussion of gay marriage. The interplay of religion and politics has led for much controversy. In the United States, the use of Christian and Jewish biblical texts are the main sources drawn upon for opposition, but have also been used as a supportive means of equality. Beyond the religious there are also psychological and physical health arguments, as well as civil rights arguments. Same sex marriage is examined through different paradigms, thus giving rise to religious, political/legal, and religious arguments surrounding the legalization of this institution for gay and lesbian couples.
The family issue I will be analyzing is interfaith marriage. Interfaith marriage is simply marriage between two people who belong to or identify with different religious groups. However simple the definition may seem, the reality of interfaith marriage can be far more complex. For most of human history it has been a social taboo to marry outside of one 's faith. However, in recent years it has become much more acceptable, even to the point of seeming to essentially be a non-factor as far as society is concerned. Nevertheless, with the inevitable differences in customs and beliefs, and despite social acceptance, interfaith marriages can still cause major conflict in the household. This paper will explore seven different sociological theories, and attempt to explain how they can decipher the effects of interfaith marriage upon the family.
There are various perceptions of gay and lesbian couples that they represent a more egalitarian relationship. (Civettini 2015:1) However, when same-sex couples are observed there is still a tendency to believe that the relationship contains a masculine and feminine figure following the heterosexual model. So, it is necessary to address both how these couples deviate from society’s norms as gay individuals but might still be reproducing the same behaviors as heterosexual couples because the ideologies are so deeply rooted in social institutions. The stereotypical connotations of masculinity and femininity influence all aspects of American society and gender display relies heavily on meeting those given expectations. So, in the case of this article, the author Civettini views a connection between sex, gender, and sexual orientation when it comes to displaying
Amy Zimmerman's position on the difficulties of bisexuality on TV presents an intriguing argument. However, Her use of pathos and ethos were rendered ineffective because of her select choice of audience and use of real-life examples.
Throughout the article Zimmerman uses television shows such as House of Cards and Game of Thrones to show examples of how media portrays bisexual men. Zimmerman found that in both shows the bisexual actors were muscular men with toned abs, and that these characters were limited in their roles. Zimmerman
Dr. Dobson’s “Marriage Under Fire” book is a must read for all Christians, due to the gay marriage onslaught brought on by secular society. In his writing, Dr. Dobson gives concrete evidence for traditional marriage between one man and one woman as God designed it from the beginning of time. He also discusses how we have come to this point in the relationship crisis of our day and why we must take a stand for what is right (traditional marriage). This book has five chapters that can be applauded for its content; however, the first three – “The State of Our Unions”, “How Did We Get In This Mess?” and “Why We Must Win This Battle” are key to understanding true marriage and the dilemma of homosexual unions and the detrimental state in which it will have on humanity.
Due to the Sexual Revolution in the 1960s, sex has been redefined allowing for cultural acceptance of societal phenomena such as the Hookup Culture, pre-marital sex, and cohabitation. Redefining sexual relationships has aided in the fundamental distortion of human sexuality and sexual relationships, causing the institution of marriage to be affected. Marriage has transitioned in the minds of contemporary culture from a covenant made between two people as reflection of “Christ’s self-offering to the Church” to “a mere ceremony – a ritual devoid of efficacy” (Grabowski, 117). This change in marriage has allowed the practice of cohabitation to increase. This increase occurred as individuals came to view marriage only as a capstone to their relationship,
The usage of the word “bisexual” to define an individual’s attraction to both sexes has been around since 1892. Bisexuality itself has been around since the study of world sexuality and in the United States alone, bisexuals make up 55% of the LGBT community (Gates (2011) p. 4). Yet as recently as the early 21st century, psychologists have still tried to argue that “most people are one way, some the other. A very few are truly ambidextrous” (Myers (2003) p.476). Bisexual representation in film and television is largely portrayed through common stereotypes and implications – when it is portrayed at all. In television, bisexuality is dismissed as the transitory stage between heterosexuality and homosexuality. In film, it is minimized to titillation for a male audience or as a trope for sexual promiscuity. This is largely in part due to the negative stereotypes surrounding the sexuality and the dichotomous nature of media framing in terms of sexual orientation in an effort to discourage bisexual visibility.
Over the past two decades, the impact of gender role stereotyping on our society has been examined in numerous studies. The purpose of these studies was to determine whether the sex bias portrayed in books, TV shows and social media is still as prevalent as in the past. Modern Family is one of the TV shows that clearly prove that, the roles played by males and females have changed in by the time. Modern Family show is about a family that tackles normal, everyday problems. The show features three combined families Jay and Gloria, Phil and Claire, Mitchell and Cameron and how different genders in each family act. Because of gender stereotype issues like gay marriage, house wives and large difference in age between married couples, this show focused on challenging these stereotypes and solving such conflict in our society.
Things have changed a great deal from the Puritanical beliefs integrated long ago that said people must have a license in order to live together. Now, blended families are commonplace and "marriages" between people of the same sex are a reality. The history of marriage and family is actually filled with a variety of thought quite foreign to say, the average American. Marriage was often an agreement of practicality, arranged to provide a linkage between family fortunes. The film Titanic exemplifies this type of thinking even as late as the turn of the century. Thus, it is only in relatively recent history that marriage has been looked at in terms of romance.
Today, the idea of marriage conjures images of bashful brides beautifully draped in all white, of grandiose flower arrangements climbing towards the ceiling, of romance personified. As an institution in this modern world, marriage represents the apex of romantic love, with an entire industry of magazines, movies, and television shows devoted to perpetuating marriage as an idealized symbol of the ultimate love between two people. Contrarily, as a sociological institution, marriage comes from much more clinical and impersonal origins, contrasting with the passion surrounding modern understandings of the institution. Notably, french anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss theorizes that the institution of marriage emerged from a need to form alliances between groups, with women functioning as the property exchanged so that such alliances could be solidified (Levi-Strauss).