The Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders ( Dsm )

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History of DSM The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a mental health diagnostic system that allow clinicians (i.e. psychiatrics, psychologists, social workers, occupational therapists and nurses) to have a common understanding of mental health conditions (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). It also enables clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, researchers and policy-makers to make clear decisions around access to services and treatment guidelines for the clients. The first version of the DSM was published in 1952 (APA, 1952) and major updates were made in 1968 and 1980, which subsequently became DSM-II and DSM-III (APA, 1968; APA, 1980). DSM-III was considered to have the most significant changes from its previous two iteration (Widiger & Mullins-Sweatt, 2008; Widiger & Trull, 2007). First, the DSM-III moved away from the psychodynamic underpinnings of the previous editions which resulted in terminology used that does not reflect a particular theory of therapy. Secondly, the introduction of the multiaxial assessment system allowed clinicians to give a more comprehensive diagnosis, where psychiatric problems were described on each of the five axes respectively: Clinical Syndromes / Disorders(Axis I), Personality Disorders / Mental Retardation(Axis II), Medical Conditions(Axis III), Psychosocial and Environmental Stressors(Axis IV), and Global Assessment of Functioning(Axis V)(APA, 1980). Thirdly, it made use of specific diagnostic
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