The Earliest Movements For Repatriation By Black Americans

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The earliest movements for repatriation by Black Americans in the late nineteenth-century reflected the ways in which the gratuity of violence of both colonialism and slavery created a dialectical tension between Black Americans and Continental Africans. The psychological and social effects of this violence manifested in the concerns W. E. B. Du Bois discusses in relation to double consciousness. Amongst the most important of them would be the ways in slavery and colonialism had shaped Black Americans perspectives of themselves, Continental Africans and Africa as a land. While many Black Americans are representative of this process, people such as Martin Delaney, one of the first proponents for Black Nationalism, and Robert Campbell, a teacher at the Institute of Colored Youth in Philadelphia, exemplify the attitudes taken up by Black Americans in the late nineteenth-century and how both behavioral and structural violence shaped their understandings. Through the conceptual framework provided by people such as Du Bois, E. P. Skinner, Frantz Fanon and Frank B. Wilderson, III, one can begin to understand how these movements not only were a product of the ideologies of Black Americans, but also the products of white supremacist, anti-Black ideology. In the beginning of his book, The Souls of Black Folk¸ DuBois (1903) describes double consciousness as a “sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others” in which “[o]ne ever feels his twoness,—an American, a

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