The Effects Of Cortisol Mediated Chronic And Acute Stress And Immune System Response

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Overview of Cortisol-Mediated Chronic and Acute Stress and Immune System Response
Introduction
The nervous, endocrine, and immune systems share a close relationship critical to maintaining homeostasis during psychological and immune stress (Carlsson, Anneli, Ludvigsson, & Faresjö, 2014). Chronic stress, primarily mediated by the glucocorticoid cortisol, is associated with deleterious health outcomes and immune deficiency. However, acute stress is associated with protective health effects and immune enhancement. Stress has generally been regarded as adaptive when acute and short-term but maladaptive when chronic (Dhabhar, 2006; Carlsson, Anneli, Ludvigsson, & Faresjö, 2014; Johnson, Riley, Douglas, & Riis, 2013; Flinn and England, 2003; Wiegers, Reul, Holsboer, & de Kloet, 1994).
The aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms by which the nervous and immune systems interact to affect each other during periods of stress (psychological and physiological), the specific effects of cortisol-mediated stress on the immune system based on the magnitude and duration of the stressor, and the models proposed to explain these effects.
General mechanisms of neuroendocrine and immune system relationship
Under conditions of stress, the nervous system, via the SAM (sympathetic-adrenal-medullary) and HPA (hypothalamic-anterior pituitary-adrenal cortex) systems, produces neurotransmitters and hormones (such as cortisol and catecholamines) that bind to receptors on immune system cells;

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