Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population Journal Article Review We learned about the end World War 2 and the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with the atomic bomb but rarely do people talk about the affect effects of what happened after that to the people who were affected by the bombs. This scholarly journal titled: “Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki” by numerous authors: Evan B. Douple, PhD, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, MD, DrPH, Harry M. Cullings, PhD, Dale L. Preston, PhD, Kazunori Kodama, MD, PhD, Yukiko Shimizu, PhD, Saeko Fujiwara, MD, and Roy E. Shore, PhD, DrPH, writes about their study …show more content…
For the survivors, it was documented that they suffered burns, infection, injuries, trauma, and loss of food and clean water. Lots of medical facilities were destroyed and thus cannot treat enough patients at the time causing more chaos. On October 2, 1945, after Japan surrendered, the USA formed a “Joint Commission for the Investigating of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan” to study the effects of radiation exposure from the survivors. It was President Harry Truman that approved a long-term study to the National Research Council to study the effects of the atomic bomb, which then led to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and restructured to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This journal review will consist of the research from the ABCC/RERF. It is no surprise that in the beginning, the ABCC focused on studies and observations that interest them the most at the time being, study of leukemia, birth defects in children irritated in the utero, and cataracts. These were considered the most common things known about radiation at the time. It was until later that the organization started studying mortality and caner incidences based on the sample of 120,000 survivors. Basically, everyone who survived within 2.5 km of the blasts was enrolled into this study. For the study data, all the cohorts were supported financially and scientifically for more than 60 years by both Japan and US governments. The
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That accident was at urban centre in 1986. consistent with the report two-handed down in 2000 by the global organisation X c. Committee on the consequences of Atomic Radiation, twenty eight employees died within the initial 3 months when the incident, nineteen died between 1987 and 2004 of varied causes not essentially related to radiation
During the bombing of Hiroshima, casualty rates among medical personnel were in the range between 80 to 93 percent. Injuries resulting from the bombing often went untreated, and the survivors did not receive health care for some time. The book Hiroshima discusses this issue in great length, specifically why they were not given the necessary aid. The government of Hiroshima played a major role in this.
The following five to six years there was a noticeable increase in Leukemia patients. Women that were pregnant at the time of the bombing experienced higher rates of miscarriages and infant death. Fetuses exposed to the high levels of radiation through the following years were more at risk for intellectual disabilities, impaired growth and increased risk of cancer.
In the book Hiroshima the author not only exposes the physical impacts right after the bomb but also weeks and years after the nuclear attack. The effect of radiation caused by the atomic bomb on people for most lasted for the rest of there live and often was the cause of the death and for those who had children affected some of there children. One of the six people interviewed, Father Kleinsorge who had only suffered minor cuts when the bomb had been dropped, a month later they still hadn’t healed and was suffering from high fever and abdominal pain and low white cell count. But his character couldn’t receive the one thing which would have probably helped, a blood transfusion because with atomic bomb patients they weren’t sure that if you stick needles in them they’ll stop bleeding. By telling the reader about Father Kleinsorge Hersey shows the reader that the nuclear attack caused many people to suffer from radiation sick months after the actual bombing and the irony is that one of thing that could save them could also kill them. The author also tells us that by 1950 the incidence of leukemia in hibakusha (survivors of the atomic bomb) was between ten and fifteen time above the normal, this was five years after the bomb had hit Hiroshima. Hersey does this to show the reader that even for those that are lucky enough to escape death and the terrible burns from the bomb they still are affected physically by the effect of
With the start of World War II the race for the first atomic bomb started. With Germany under Hitler’s reign, the Nazis began separating uranium to form the first atomic bomb to control the world. The push for the United States build the first atomic bomb began with this knowledge. With the help of several scientists the United States succeeded in building the atomic bomb first. Two atomic bombs were used; a uranium bomb on Hiroshima and a plutonium bomb on Nagasaki. Along with the many deaths were six stages of A-bomb illness which includes acute stages, atomic bomb trauma, A-bomb radiation illness, radiation blood injury at lethal dosage, blood injuries, and secondary radiation illness. Seven unhealed scars were also an effect of the atomic bombs that includes keloids, A-bomb cataracts, leukemia, cancers, chromosome changes, exposure in utero and microcephaly, and genetic surveys. Regulations and guidance were set in place soon after the bombings to protect the people of the world based on the information that was gathered and it has changed over the years based on the new information that was learned. With the use of the atomic bombs in World War II, a lot of pain and suffering was caused, but a great deal of information was learned to help protect future generations from radiation.
The dropping of the atomic bomb has been significant in understanding the long term effects that radiation has on the body. It was important that the bomb be used in order for our society to comprehend the repercussions of nuclear warfare. In the book Hiroshima, a survivor named Rev. Kiyoshi Tanimoto briefly describes a commission set up by the United States
After the bomb was dropped many people had developed serious health issues, many not knowing they had any. Father Wilhelm Kleinsorge, a German priest, had to have repeated visits to the hospital, to be treated for medical symptoms commonly found in the A-bomb survivors. “Back in the hospital in Tokyo for the second time, Father Kleinsorge was suffering from fever, diarrhea, wounds that would not heal, wildly fluctuating blood counts, and utter exhaustion. For the rest of his life, he was to be a classic case history of… borderline form of A-bomb sickness… many of which turned up in hibakusha…” (Hersey, 110). A few years after the atom bomb was dropped many survivors, commonly called hibakusha, meaning explosion-affected persons, had to make many trips to the hospital because the United States dropped the atom bomb. Dr. Fujii, a physician who has a private hospital, planned to have a gathering on New Year’s Day with his family, but never showed up. “At half past eleven, Dr. Fujii had not appeared, and
Lincoln Riddle reports the effects of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs of 1945 were still tormenting many people in the cities for years to come. Riddle states that the combined death toll was about 129,000-240,000 people, but many more died in the next few month and years due to burns, radiation, and cancer. At the time the bombs were dropped, no one really knew the effects that the bombs would have on the environment or the people who survived the initial blast. Over the next few years, both Hiroshima and Nagasaki would see a spike in leukemia and thyroid, lung, and breast cancer. These numbers rose because of the people’s exposure to radiation. Women aged 22-30 were at a higher risk of getting breast cancer if they were exposed to more than
It is sad to think of all those people who suffered the side effect or even experienced the atomic bombing in Japan during War World II. After reading the essay Michihiko Hachiya from Hiroshia Diary, Dr Hachiya articulates his experience after the bombing in Hiroshima. Dr Hachiya explains his injuries due to the bombing and the damage cause by the atomic bomb. I am not for war but
At about eight A.M on August sixth, 1945 the Japanese city Hiroshima was destroyed by the deployment of the first nuclear weapon, nicknamed “Little Boy.” Soon after, at about eleven A.M the following day, a second bomb was dropped, called “Fat Man” on Nagasaki. Together, these bombings caused massive destruction. The death total was well near 220, 000. Only portions of these deaths were from the days of the bombings, with an equal number occurring later in the year from exposure to radiation. More have died since from leukemia.
"When I ran my hand through my hair clumps of my hair would come out." Said the Marshall Island girl after the largest nuclear war head ever tested by the United States government was set off to the north of her. Bravo (the bombs code name) was 1,000 times more powerful then the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The Marshallese Islanders environment, health, subsistence, family traditions, rituals, religious practices, and following generations were all greatly impaired from Bravo’s blast. The following discuses these effects as well as U.S. interpretations of exposed victims as opposed to unexposed victims. There are also comparisons to the victims of Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and the U.S. radioactive homeland.
The book Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima by Robert Jay Lifton. Lifton looks at the psychological effects of the atomic bomb. The book has a section that provides a list of survivors quoted and corresponding page numbers. This is a valuable source in diagnosing the effect and impact of the atomic bombing. The list includes quotes from seventy-five interviewees in Hiroshima. One interesting quote that I found comes from a woman who was seventeen years old when she witnessed the atomic bombing. She states, “I walked past Hiroshima Station…and saw people with their bowels and brains coming out…I saw an old lady carrying a suckling infant in her arms…I saw many children…with dead mothers…I just cannot put into words the horror I felt…” (50)
Survivors found themselves without rescue, medical attention, or food and water. Of the city’s 298 doctors, 270 (90%) became bomb victims. The casualty rates among all medical professionals ranged between 80% and 93%. Eighteen hospitals and 32 first-aid clinics were destroyed and the majority of workers or military who could assist in helping the wounded or rebuilding facilities were killed and injured (Atomic Bomb Museum Web Site). Initial effects of radiations were horrific, yet the damage only continued. Within the first two weeks, injuries consisted mainly of burns from the rays and flames or wounds from the blast and crumbling structures. By weeks three through eight, injuries changed into symptoms caused by the radiation. The symptoms
In 1945 the United States of America dropped two nuclear bombs on Japan on in Nagasaki and the other in Hiroshima. Both of these locations are still affecting people in those areas, although not far as much as when the bombs went off. The radiation is very bad for us humans “A large, rapid dose of radiation causes cell death, and effects are apparent within hours, days, or weeks”(Reed). People suffer many health issues from high doses of radiation which can all result in
Some regard the atomic bomb as “the thank God for the atom bomb”. This places God on the U.S. side and regards the bombs as our saving grace. This bomb forced the Japanese to surrender which in turn proved the U.S. to be the heroes who saved the American’s lives.1 The Americans intended on ending the war but did not expect to end it with such a large number of casualties. The results of the atomic bomb and how it effected the Japanese people both emotionally and physically will be addressed. “The bombs marked both an end and a beginning—the end of an appalling global conflagration in which more than 50 million people were killed and the beginning of the nuclear arms race and a new world in which