The Effects Of Prenatal Tobacco Exposure On An Infant 's Regulatory Processes During The First Month Of Their Lives

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Prenatal Tobacco Exposure Introduction
The authors wanted to explain the consequences of prenatal tobacco exposure on an infant’s regulatory processes during the first month of their lives. They wanted to see tobacco’s effect on self-regulatory behavior.
Previous research displays vast implications regarding the effect of tobacco on neonates. Some effects of prenatal tobacco exposure include, low birth weight, reduction in body length and head size, greater risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruption in the normal development of neuronal reactivity, reduced sensitivity to auditory stimuli, reduction in visual attentive skills, and withdrawal behaviors.
The researchers wanted to ensure that they researched the topic
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The researchers conducted interviews to determine the eligibility of the pregnant women by examining the biospecimens of the participants to confirm the smoking group assignments during different stages in the pregnancy. They did this by recording the cotinine levels of the maternal urine at 16, 28 and 40 weeks of the pregnancy and the infant meconium shortly after birth. A total of 255 neonate meconium was available for analysis. They also took the extent of the tobacco exposure into account when they conducted the study by finding out how many cigarettes the participant smoked each day during a trimester and the extent of tobacco exposure after the child was born. The neonate was then tested according to the Neonatal Temperament Assessment (NTA) to measure emergent regulatory skills 2 days after birth in the hospital, at 2 weeks of age in the university laboratory and then finally at 4 weeks in the participant’s home.
The study found that the birthweight difference of the control and experimental groups were not different and therefore tobacco exposure did not alter the birthweight of neonates. However, there is a dose dependent difference in the birth weights of those who were exposed to tobacco. Each additional cigarette during the 3rd trimester resulted in a 11.55g decrease in birth weight. This kind of trend was also examined in the neonates length and head size. Tobacco exposed neonates had, on average, lower attention scores at 2
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