The Effects Of Thermal On The Indoor Environment

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Thermal bridging

Over 40% of global energy consumption occurs in the construction industry (Shao, 2014). One means of reducing energy consumption in this sector is to increase the thermal efficiency of buildings. The building envelope has been developed to isolate the indoor environment from the outdoor environment, in order to raise the energy efficiency of a building, and to create a healthier indoor environment (Ge et al., 2013; Al-Sane and Zedan, 2012). Civil engineers must select appropriate materials, namely insulation materials with a track record of high thermal efficiency, so that the costs of air conditioning and heating equipment can be reduced (Ge et al., 2013). It should be noted that thermal bridges appear have
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In the second section, the potential effects of these thermal bridges are presented and discussed. The final section contains recommendations on how to reduce or eliminate (the effects of) thermal bridges.

Figure 1: an example of thermal bridging between a ceiling and a roof (source: Cunningham, 2011).

Location of thermal bridges
Thermal bridges may appear in different parts of a building, including roofs, walls, and structural members. There are two main types of thermal bridge, which are caused by poor design (Sch?ck, 2014). The first is a material thermal bridge, which occurs when adjacent materials have different conductivities(ibid). An example of this type of thermal bridge is shown in Figure 2. Firstly, the thermal conductivity of the two types of glazing is different, therefore, more heat transferred through one of these two types of glazing making it a thermal bridge. In addition, the thermal conductivity of the glazing is different from that of the frame, hence, there is more heat loss through the frame, against which there is a higher exterior temperature, compared with those beside the other elements.

Figure 2: example of a material thermal bridge (image and photograph by author).

Another type is a structural thermal bridge. This type of thermal bridge can occur in the interface between building elements (Paul et al., 2008). One typical example is at the junction between walls (see Figure 3). This can occur when one wall is
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