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The Evolutionary Perspective Of Origination Of Hiv And Aids

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The Evolutionary Perspective of Origination of HIV and AIDS

I. Abstract

AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is disease caused HIV (human immunodeficiency viruses). This research paper describes the evolution and origination of HIV and AIDS. There are two types of HIVs. These are called HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIVs result multiple cross species transmission from SIV (simian immunodeficiency viruses) that is viruses that infects primates. HIV-1 comes from SIV from chimpanzees whereas HIV-2 comes from sooty mangabeys. HIV-1 has four sub groups these includes M, N, O, and P. Each of groups has resulted from independent cross-species transmission event. Group M is the most virulent, and it is the first to be discovered. HIV-2 has groups that ranges from A to H. SIV are infecting West Africa primates. This fact is based on the first pandemic HIV-1 has emerged in colonial West African, and most researchers have sampled primates from this region only. Newly emerged SIVs are resulted from multiple cross species transmission and recombination. The cross species transmission occurs from non-humans to humans through eating bushmeat. The cross transmission influenced by host restriction factors, but HIVs were able to pass this barriers. Most SIV are non-pathogenic to the host; however, there is some evidence that some are pathogenic to their host. The age of the virus determined by using molecular clock method. Other studies have estimated the evolutionary timescale with same age as
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