The General Strain Theory, And General Integrated Theory

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This final theory is an extension of Hirschi 's (1979) original idea of micro and macro dimensions which are called cross-level or multilevel integrations (Barak, 2002). The general strain theory is also known as cross-level or multilevel integrations including the reintegrative shaming theory, power control theory, control balance theory and general integrated theory (Barak, 2002). These theories combine theories like social bonding and social learning theories with structural theories such as social disorganization and strain theories but does not address macro level factors that influence crime, and instead focus solely on criminal behavior at the micro level. So far, very little theories suggested have encompassed all levels of explaining criminology (Barak, 2002). This is a social structure- macro model which states that differential opportunities are not only crime class specific, but also are accompanied by motivations for both crime and punishment. The introduction of an integrative theory that analyzes the traits of locations and the people in the locations, rather than the people themselves. It claims that deviant behavior is more prevalent in areas that are poorer (Barak, 2002). Life has many daily strains and most do not lead to criminality but the greater the negative reaction, the higher the probability for criminality. Also, a negative reaction perpetuates further negative reactions which leads to a higher probability of criminal activities,
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