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The Major Theories Of Criminal Behavior And The Impact Of Crime On Victims And Society

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Psychology of Human and Criminal Behaviour

Describing and Evaluating the Major Theories of Cause of Criminal Behaviour and the Impact of Crime on Victims and Society

London Foundation campus

1. Introduction
Akers & Sellers (2013) noted that there are various common theories that are pertinent to the study of crime as the extents of crime explanations range from the genetic/biological through to the economic and social perspective. Howitt (2012) divided these theories into four categories: macro-level or societal theories; locality or community level theories; group and socialisation influence theories; and individual level theories. This essay first describes the major theories of crime in the discussion section, which also discusses the impacts of crime at the individual and societal level, followed by conclusion based on the previous discussion.

2. Discussion on the Major Theories of Criminal Behaviour
Macro-level or societal theories include Marxist conflict theory, Robert Merton’s strain theory, and Feminist theory (Howitt, 2012). According to Howitt (2012), Marxist conflict theory contains that societies have emerged from states of conflicts between competing groups in societies over institutionalised powers and material resources. Consequently, the prevailing class employs laws for controlling other groups and maintaining its supremacy and command. As a result, conflict criminological researches tend to emphasise on the differential treatments
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