Human Immunodeficiency Virus
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HIV Known as a Communicable Disease
A communicable disease is known an illness that results from an infectious agent that occurs through transmission either indirectly or directly, from an infected individual. The human immunodeficiency virus is considered a communicable disease, and will be explored further in relation to the concepts of epidemiology and the role of the community health nurse. Epidemiology essentially responds to the questions of who, when, what, why, where and how of a disease and investigates the problem before everything is made evident (Grand …show more content…
The next stage averages a length of 10 years (Holland, 2013). During this time, many generally lead asymptomatic lives. In the symptomatic stage, the individual’s viral load levels go increasingly high, signifying that the immune system is weakening. Antiretroviral medications will serve as treatment, if it has not already been utilized already. If such medication does not help, or treatment is not sought out, later-stage HIV infection symptoms can manifest. This involves recurring fever, loss of memory, weight loss, and diarrhea for more than a week (Holland, 2013). Since the immune system is compromised, opportunistic infections become far more probable to occur. The last stage involves the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). If the CD4+ T-cell count goes under 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood, and the individual is diagnosed with a condition related to HIV such as pneumonia, it is indicative of AIDS, generally (Holland, 2013). HIV is transmitted via semen, blood, breast milk, and vaginal and rectal secretions. An infected mother can pass HIV to her unborn child via placenta or during birth if the proper measures are not undertaken. Sharing needles can also infect an individual due to possible contamination of infected blood (Holland, 2013). There is no cure for HIV as of yet. Retroviral drugs are
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HIV is communicable disease that is caused by virus. This particular virus attacks the immune system which means people who suffer from HIV find it more difficult to fight of infection than the average person who does not suffer from HIV. This disease can be transmitted by direct contact, generally it is transferred by sexual contact between partners in fact 95% of those who suffer from HIV are contracted it this way. It can also be contracted by using dirty needles or any other contaminated tool. It can also be contracted by sharing sexual toys. HIV is commonly found in a person’s bodily fluids this means it is spread through, Sperm, vaginal and even anal fluids, breast milk and blood are also common.
According to Weiss RA. (2008) ). The AIDS plague has already caused the deaths of over 50% its victims. All HIV-infected persons are at higher risk for diseases and death from opportunistic pathogens and neoplastic complications because of the AIDS manifestation. Once HIV infection started, it spread is driven by numerous factors. The arrival of the virus in the 20th century gave a resource for spread not only in the present but also in past human pandemics. According to Mayer K. et al., (2008) Development has led to increased numbers of people at
Several years ago, we became aware of HIV/AIDS. This disease is caused by a viral infection which interferes with the human immune system (“HIV/AIDS Basics” 1). There are several modes of transmission with this disease. Included are: unprotected sexual intercourse (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. (“HIV/AIDS Basics” 4).
In this essay I will be discussing how HIV is transmitted through a number of ways which include: unprotected sex, sharing injecting equipment and other needles, pregnancy, childbirth and breast feeding, and blood transfusion; various treatments available to affected individuals to enable them to live a healthy life as there is currently no cure; and finally the psycho-social aspects
During the course of history there has been many pandemics and epidemics, which have threatened human existence. Various threats such as smallpox, the black plague, measles and influenza can be dated back as early as the 1300’s. Now there is a similar threat, Human Immune deficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The severity of the HIV and AIDS pandemic has affected at least 36.7 million people and at least 1.1 million people have died from AIDS in the United States and beyond. Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a disease that causes an attack on the body’s immune system. HIV once classified as an epidemic but as of 2014 it was shifted to a global pandemic due to its effect on the global population. Rates of
According to the Federal HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office (FHAPCO 2012:1) occurrence of the Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic is one of the leading public health problems the world has ever realized in current history. In the past thirty years HIV has spread fast and affected entire segments of people: child, young and adult people, men and women, and the rich and the poor.
A life-changing pandemic has effected millions across the world. It has plagued many people addicted to drugs, many who practice unsafe sex, or even the innocent health care worker. Some people may sadly consider their lives extinguished upon contraction of the in-curable virus, others will not let the infection rule their lives. However, the infection is no long-er considered a death sentence in contrast to what many may believe. Many people are igno-rant of the virus and continue to believe what was shared many years ago. What is HIV/AIDS, and what is its history? What is its effects on the body? How can it be, not cured, but treated? Who is at higher risk for a possible infection? Are there any possible cures in the making?
The HIV virus is carried in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and mucous membranes. It is generally spread through sexual contact, sharing needles, and can be passed on from mother to child during birth. The virus itself does not survive well outside of the body and therefore casual contact with infected fluids does not pose too much of a concern. HIV does not elicit many symptoms early on, but is much more dangerous later. Some early symptoms are nausea, enlarged lymph nodes, diarrhea, weight loss, joint pain and a few other minor symptoms. However, although early symptoms can be quite minor, the major risk of HIV is the weakened immune system which can lead to serious infections, diseases, and cancers. To diagnose HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a fairly common diagnosis with an estimated 1.1 million people in the United stated who carry the infection and is predominantly seen in homosexual Caucasian and black males.1 Prognosis for individuals with HIV is vastly different and is dependent on many different variables. The Center for Disease and Control (CDC) has classified the HIV virus into 3 stages based on the symptoms and the pathological progression of the virus. The first stage of the virus lasts usually one to four weeks, which presents with similar symptoms of mononucleosis (2 p 367). Stage two of the virus roughly lasts about ten years, at which point the CD4+ t cell levels drop to around 1000 cells/microliter (2 p367). During the final stage, stage 3 occurs when the CD4+ T cells levels drop to 200 cells/microliter, and the person is now infected with AIDS and the progression of the infection may be very rapid (2 p367). Ultimately, the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a complex immune virus that is capable of destroying ones immune system, leaving their body defenseless.
A person infected with HIV can slow the progression of the disease with anti-retroviral therapy or ART. ART involves taking a combination of HIV medicines (called an HIV regimen) every day. It prevents HIV from multiplying and destroying your infection-fighting CD4 cells. Drug therapy determined that is best for the HIV infected person depends largely on lab work and how the patient is compliant with the medications. ART can’t cure HIV, but it can help you live a longer, healthier life and reduce your risk of HIV transmission to others. However, opportunistic infections such as pneumonia or salmonella, which would typically not harm a healthy person, would make the HIV infected person extremely ill. They are called opportunistic
Adults are not the only population affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Children are also affected by this virus. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), in the United States, there is more than a 90% decline in children who are infected with HIV prenatally since the mid-1990s. This is due to HIV testing and preventive interventions. The most common route of HIV infection in children is through perinatal transmission. Perinatal transmission is when a mother passes the infection to her baby. This transmission is through labor and delivery, breastfeeding, or during pregnancy (CDC, 2013).
There are three things to consider the with transmission of disease, known as the epidemiologic triangle, vulnerable person or host, the setting, and the infectious agent. In considering the host or individual, it is important to include demographics, the person’s
One of the most prevalent diseases facing the world today is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV and AIDS became widely known on June 5th, 1981 when the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the first instance of this virus. Contrary to popular belief, being HIV positive is not a death sentence. Modern drugs make it possible for people who are HIV positive to be very healthy and live for years without developing AIDS. Also, those who have AIDS can continue to live for many years and be just as healthy as their non-HIV positive peers. Those carrying this virus can live practically normal lives; working, pursuing higher education, having a social life and romantic
Human Immunodeficiency Virus has left a deep imprint on citizens affected today. The first recognition of AIDS occurred in the 1980’s and informed Americans to be more careful of their sexually activity. Some symptoms were similar to the common cold but were taken seriously after it lead to deaths. People assumed that HIV was spread by sitting on toilet seats or even hugging. The truth was that HIV couldn’t be spread as easily as everyone thought. HIV could only be transmitted through sexual contact, or needle use from an infected individual. This virus gradually became a scare especially when the common antibiotics failed. Later on scientists slowly realized that when a person is
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV, is primarily a sexually transmitted infection. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood, most commonly IV drug users, or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. When HIV weakens the immune system HIV develops into AIDS. The start of HIV was said to come from a strain of DNA from Chimpanzee’s to contain polio. HIV/AIDS has become a widely spread virus that affects the human immune system. Africa has had the greatest number of infected persons, both adults and children than any other continent.