It has been established throughout previously mentioned economic-based examples that there is a significant relationship between economic status and academic success. However, studies show that educational achievement also has a substantial correlation with the other aspect of socioeconomic status; social class. This is because social patterns that are inherently designed to correlate an individual’s academic success with their social status, are often rooted in school systems’ structures. Although it’s evident that social class plays a substantial role in the success that a student will achieve throughout their academic career, pinpointing its extent is difficult since social class-based educational inequality is a complex issue. Professional sociologists Lynch, O'Neill (1994) discuss the social pattern of academic disparity based on social class being rooted in education systems and analyze previous studies on the matter. They imply that educational inequality is persistent in society because the higher socioeconomic status individuals who conduct the education system do so in such a way that they benefit from the lower socioeconomic status ones. “…the inequalities experienced in the education system by working class people has been colonised by middle class academics for their own professional purposes.” (Lynch, O’Neill, 1994, p. 307) Lynch, O'Neill (1994) refer to results from a study conducted by O’Neil (1992) to explain a major factor preventing class-based
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Throughout decades, education inequality is still one of the most deliberate and controversial issues in the United States. Thus far, the privilege or right to receive education has not attained the level of equality throughout the nation. Poor districts obtain less educational funds while rich districts obtain more, which create an immense gap between the quality of schools in poor and rich areas. In other words, the education gap is the root of inequality in America. Inequality in education is linked to the major problems in the society. The need for studies to be done to find ways of overcoming these inequalities is very inevitable. The means of mitigating these inequalities are important for the entire world. This is something of great interest due to the fact that children need quality education which is a pillar for a guaranteed future. Generally speaking, the distinctions among races, genders, and classes in the society have caused the educational inequality in America.
Brittany LamberthProfessor Wells English 102June 15, 2018Paul Krugman, agrees that the country is becoming economically diverse bit by bit. The middle ground amongthe richest and poorest is vanishing, and inequality is`widespread. His essay, “Confronting inequality” revealsonly how inequalityaffects us, but, as McClelland opposes, how recurringinequality can be. He references a study performed by the National Center for Education informationfrom the 1988 to 2003, in which eighth grade students were arrangedboth by academic skilland the socioeconomic rankof their parents, and the college graduation percentage. If our educational system truly gave all students equivalentopportunities, then we would expect the graduation rates to depend onlyon
The inequality of education in the United States is a pressing societal issue that has been the main catalyst for the division between the social classes. Education is a public good, and thus if it used by one consumer then it will not reduce the availability to another consumer. Education can also be considered the largest single factor in determining a person’s success and quality of life in society today.
Thus, globalization forces researchers to understand the influence of mobility, in addition to education, on social class (Banks & Banks, 2013). This articles I chose to investigate social class and its implications for educational outcomes are Social class and the hidden curriculum of work by Jean Anyon and Reappraising the importance of class in higher education entry and persistence by John Field and Natalie Morgan Klein.
Social class is a large faction of people who have similar positions in an economic system. In an exemplary world, all students would have an equal shot at success, excellent schools, and educators that dedicate themselves and their time to achieving this goal. However, social class can significantly affect a student's success, highlighting the correlation between low socioeconomic statuses and academic problems. In all social groups, class plays a significant role in the attainment of children in education. Unfortunately, this has always been the case and the effects are just more evident today. Families from high social classes are more likely to obtain a greater level of education than those in low social classes. Members of upper social classes tend to be better educated and have higher incomes; therefore, they are better able to supply educational advantages to their children as well. Being in a financially disadvantaged can also affect a child’s performance during school. It is important, therefore, to examine the way in which education is distributed through social class. Between societal pressures, expectations and parental negligence, children can be negatively impacted in their pursuit for future success through their education as exemplified through “College Pressures” and “The Sanctuary of School”.
With the growing importance of higher education, more people than ever are attending college. According to a middle-class parent, “[Higher education] seen as a means of developing a career and getting secure employment.” (30, Higher Education, social class and social mobility) Moreover, “parents believe that their children need a university education to get on in life… over the past decades (parents) fearful that without a degree their children will be in danger of downward social mobility. (32, Higher
The education system in the United States has expanded over the years to prepare individuals for the demanding labor market that constitutes our society. It has shifted from the development of mere intellectual scholars to the development of intellectual scholars competitive enough for a work force that now requires a degree for entrance. As this system of education has expanded throughout the country, so has the reproduction of inequality. To explain the manner in which this system has been structured to achieve a gap of inequity among society’s affluent and disadvantaged members, conflict theorist Karl Marx claims that, “School institutions are intentionally designed to integrate individuals into an unjust society” (Brand lecture, January
In the article “Who Gets to Graduate” by Paul Tough examines a problem about low income students are less likely to graduate from college than students from middle class or wealthier families. In the United States, school systems are not created equally. Middle and upper class students have access to safe and modern schools equipped with everything they possibly need to stay in that high rank because they came from a family who has the money to support their studies. Students from low-income families don’t have a lot of the support, stability, and money from home that higher-income students can take for granted.
Socioeconomic status plays a key factor in the type of education a child receives today and ultimately functions to keep individuals in the class they are born into. Those who are part of the lower class receive the bare minimum in education with the end goal being blind obedience, while the upper class is educated in a way that encourages self-regulation, individual thought, and creativity. These vast differences in education are no mistake and are put in place for overall control.
Today in society the determination for a college degree lies beyond education towards future financial security. While college debt seems to be ever increasing, students from low-income families are less likely to attend college due to the financial hardship. The social class that a student’s family falls into shows correlation on whether that student will or not attend college (Peske & Haycock, 2006). However, looking at this issue from my own prospective it seems as though no matter the social class students are attending college. What more so seems to have an affect on outcomes for individuals is how there family’s social economic status effects how well a student performs in college. For a student from a low-income family nothing can seem more daunting than the overwhelming amount of debt we have to pay after college.
The affect of low socioeconomic status is still influential among high achieving students, with the likelihood of achieving a bachelor’s degree increasing with socioeconomic status on students that scored in the upper quartile of an eighth grade math exam (Lee et all., 2008). Race is still an indicator of academic achievement, but its direct and indirect effects are less strong (Lee et all., 2008). Students of majority race (White and Asian) complete high school at a rate of 93%, while students of the non-asian minority complete high school at a rate of 85% (Lee et all., 2008). The gap between students of differing socioeconomic status was far wider, of 44 percentage points, as compared to the gap between races and high school completion rates, which is 8 percentage points. Differences in gender also shows discrepancies, with 31% of females receiving at least a bachelor’s degree and only 26% of males receiving at least a bachelor’s degree.
Since urban areas, and subsequently urban high schools, have a high population of low-income residents, it is important to explore how this aspect of their social status has affected these individuals historically. According to Mantsios (2006) a majority of the United States (60 percent) hold less than 6 percent of the wealth. What is more, one in eight people live below the federal poverty level Mantsios (2006). This is important, because class level is strongly correlated with educational outcomes and success, which can be explained by class domination Mantsios (2006). Essentially, people who are born into wealthy families versus poor families have more opportunities provided to them on the basis of their class status or familial connections Mantsios (2006). Take for instance the example Schmidt (2007) given of white students with mediocre grades getting into Ivy League
While America continues to battle racial inequality, the education gap in our country continues to spike. The most influential growth has been the importance of education over the years. A high school diploma will not allow an individual to climb the ladder of success without attaining a Bachelor’s degree or some form of proper education. Education in America is considered to be valuable and an important dimension of one’s life. Researchers state that there is a definite link between the individual’s zip code and their chances of success (Ireland, 2016). Individuals are often ranked based on the kind of degree and education one possesses. In America, researchers have stated in order to be “accepted” as a member in a status group it requires certain credentials (Ireland, 2016). Several see education as a key to maintain status and prestige, because individuals believe by attaining an education allows them to advance in society. Researchers then state that attaining a proper education benefits the class structure by
In “Inequality by Design”, the argument is made that social environment affects where individuals end up, not individual talent or market capitalism (Fischer et al 1996). This social environment includes advantages and disadvantages we get from our parents, the resources our friends share can share with us, quantity and quality of schooling, and the historical era we are born in (Fischer et al 1996). The argument made in “Inequality by Design”, is closely related what shapes one’s trajectory into college. Though college may not be the final destination in “where we end up” as stated in the argument, college is a large contributing factor to where we end up and the social environment affects has a large effect on one’s trajectory into college. When looking back on my trajectory into college, I can see that my social environment had a large part in shaping my path to college, however some factors of the social environment had a larger role than others. In Gregor Aisch and his colleges article “You Draw It: How Family Income Predicts Children’s College Chances” (2015), it is shown that this is true not only for myself but also for children who were born around 1980. The income percentile of children’s parents, which is a factor of the child’s social environment, is closely related to whether or not the children attend college. Within this paper we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages that my social environment gave me on my trajectory to college and how parent’s income
The literature thus firmly supports the thesis that socio-economic status is directly correlated with academic success, due to the superior financial and social capital resources available to the middle-class student. Furthermore, the interdependence between multiple factors means that the cumulative impact of risk factors may be greater than the simple sum of separate factors (Sparks, 1999:10)