The Main Causes Of The Meiji Restoration In Japan

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The main causes of the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration was a significant historical event not only in Japanese history but also in world history. A study (Hunt, Lynn, Thomas, & Barbara, 2009) concluded that the word “Meiji” means “enlightened rule” and the goal was to combine “modern advances” with “eastern” values. This event restored practical imperial rule to Japan under Emperor Meiji in 1868 (“Meiji Restoration”, 2017). As a result, it led to the tremendous changes in political and social structure of Japan, and spanned both the Late Tokugawa period and the beginning of the Meiji period (“Meiji Restoration”, 2017). The main causes of Meiji Restoration can be analyzed from the following different aspects.
1) Ecological crisis
Japan was divided into 240 han which were governed by its own daimyo. After 1720, although some places prospered and others declined which depended on local circumstances, a whole Japan began to experience ecological crisis. To be specific, the number of Japanese population doubled from 15 million to 30 million. In general, the increase in population put pressure on the environment and made it easier for people to suffer from natural disasters such as famines and typhoons. These led to ecological crisis which helped destabilize Tokugawa rule and brought about further reform.

2) Foreign relation crisis and political crisis
In the world history, European countries became stronger due to two events in the 1630s. Firstly, some European countries

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