The Nature Vs. Nurture Debate

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Introduction For more than a century, researchers and psychologists, such as Sir Francis Galton, Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud and many others, have been trying to understand how people are transformed by their environment. Researchers have mainly argued whether it is in fact our environment or rather genetics, our biological pre-wiring, which has influenced human behavior. This concept ultimately facilitated what is now known as the Nature versus Nurture debate. The Nature aspect states that human behavior is predetermined by our inherited genes or is the product of our innate behavior. The Nurture side of the disagreement postulates that human behavior stems from acquired attributes through individual learning and experiences. Correspondingly, the Object Relations Theory in psychoanalytic psychology supports the position that a person’s natural environment (i.e. family, peers, acquaintances, society) forms human development. The Object Relations theory stresses that it is the relationships between people, more specially family, often between mother and child, that crafts the human psyche. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (SLT) Likewise, Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory derives on the premise that humans learn and develop accordingly to our environment and not our genetics. The Sociocultural Level of Analysis in psychology states that people retain an individual identity as well as a collective identity and therefore base personality on a combination of

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