The fifth layer is the session layer this establishes a connection,this layer makes and sets up the connection using co ordinates and could terminate conversations links. the session layer produces services that make authentication after an interruption and not only that but it can reconnect.and as well as the transporting layer it can also have the TCP and the UDP can provide services for all most all applications.An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in both of the standard models of computer networking; the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model).Although both models use the same term for their respective highest level layer, the detailed definitions and purposes are different.In TCP/IP, the application layer contains the communications protocols and interface methods used in process-to-process communications
It is operating on best effort delivery model, i.e. it does not guarantee delivery, nor does it assure proper sequencing or avoidance of duplicate delivery. These aspects, including data integrity, are addressed by an upper layer transport protocol, such as the Transmission
The OSI (Open System Interconnection) model is a set of specifications that allow computers around the world to openly communicate. It is pivotal to understanding and developing computer to computer communications in a network. Each layer plays a role in the process of sending and receiving data. The application layer is the top layer (layer seven) it promotes communication between programs and lower-layer network services. The services at this layer allow the network to decipher a program's request and the program to decipher data sent from the network. The Application layer protocols, programs handles formatting, procedure, security, synchronization, and any other requirements with the network. The Presentation Layer (layer 6) acts as a translator. For instance these protocols decode the jpg/jpeg files sent within the Web server’s HTTP response. So, in the last step (the Application layer) we enter the Web address and it took us to the Web site. This step allows us to see the images and content of the site. The Session Layer (layer 5) regulates and controls the communication between two nodes on the network. It is an ongoing exchange of data between the two and keeps the connection between them for the duration. It keeps the communication secure, detects whether or not the communication has been cut off and if it has it determines where to restart the
The OSI Model is a model is used to define how data is theoretically passed on a network. Each layer is responsible and has its own duties for a network. The name of layer 3 in the OSI is the Network Layer. This layer is responsible for creating the paths for the transmission of data across the network. This layer provides routing and switching capabilities, as well as, internetworking, congestion control, and packet sequencing (Beal, 1999).
As we all know, the growth of computer networks continues to rapidly grow. The digital revolution has changed the way we work and communicate almost beyond recognition. Provided that, foreseeing the changes and potential compatibility problems, in the mid nineteen eighties, the international standard organization (ISO) developed a networking reference model to standardize how network systems communicate with each other. It is a logical model for how network systems are supposed to communicate with each other. It breaks down the different components of the network communication and puts them into layers which reduce complexity. This reference model consists of seven layers: Application Layer, Presentation Layer, Session Layer, Transport Layer, Network Layer, Data Link Layer, and the Physical Layer. Each layer provides a service to the layer above it in the protocol specification and then communicates with the same layer’s software or hardware on other computers. It's important to realize, that these layers are separated into 2 sets: Transportation Set (Laters 1- 4) and Application Set (Layers 5 – 7). More importantly, the OSI model is 7 logical
A communications protocol characterizes the guidelines for sending pieces of information starting with one hub in a system then onto the next hub. Conventions are regularly characterized in a layered way and give all or part of the administrations indicated by a layer of the OSI reference show. A convention characterizes the operation of the convention and may likewise propose how the convention ought to be actualized. It comprises of three sections:
The application layer: this layer allows different applications to communicate with each other’s. In order to exchange different data over the network connection, the protocols included in this layer set up the standards such as DNS, HTTP, FTP. The data coded in this layer will be encapsulated to transport layer for further packing.
A computer network is a network that consist of two or more computers that are able to share information between them or their users. There are a large variety of different networks and the advantages or disadvantages are strongly related to the type of network we choose.
Well-known communications protocols are Ethernet, a hardware and Link standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks, and the Internet Protocol Suite, which defines a set of protocols for internetworking, i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats.