The situation between Latvia, Germany, and Russia during World War II was complex and that complexity left many Latvians vulnerable to Stalinist repression when the Soviet government first ordered deportations in 1941 and when deportations began again when Soviet occupation of Latvia returned in the October of 1944. With the signing of the German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact in 1939, the Soviet Union gained a sphere of influence over west Poland and the Baltic States. On June 16th, 1940, the Latvian government received an ultimatum from the Soviet government. The Soviet government instructed them to form a new government that would comply with the implementation a Soviet-Latvian mutual assistance pact and to allow the Red Army unrestricted entry and movement throughout Latvia or have it done so by force. The following day, June 17th, the Red Army entered Riga, the capital and the Latvian government was dissolved.
The Soviet government became concerned with resistance to their occupation of Latvia during the spring of 1941. In May 1941, Beria agreed with Stalin on a draft decree of the Council of People 's Commissars and the Communist Party and the Communist Party Central Committee “On taking action on cleansing the Lithuanian SSR of anti-Soviet, criminal and socially dangerous elements” (the Latvian and Estonian Republics were added to Lithuania at this stage of coordination.” With this decree, the Soviet government and the NKVD began drafting plans to arrest and deport
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In the period after World War II, from the late 1940’s up until the 1990’s, the United States and their allies were engaged in a “cold” war with the Soviet Union and its allies. Except for minor proxy wars between countries supported by the respective sides, no major wars were fought between the U.S. and the USSR. Nonetheless, tensions were extremely high for many years and the two superpowers constantly went back and forth trying to best the other. Likely the most well-known of these competitions was the Space Race. Battling for cosmic supremacy from the late 1950’s to 1969, the two countries traded many victories over the years and pushed each other to their technological apexes.
For many revolutions people may argue different reasons why that particular revolution was caused, but there often one that is the primary cause. The Russian Revolution began February 1917, many people in Russia lost faith in their government, especially since they had not done so well to begin with when they participated in World War I. Which resulted in a lot of expenses. Others may argue that since Tsar was an unproductive leader and because of the decisions he made when he was in power that influenced the Russian Revolution. Although Tsar’s weak leadership may have influenced the Russian Revolution, World War I was the main cause of the Russian Revolution because it destroyed the economy, which led to riots and many people
The United States and Russia both emerged from WW2 as superpowers. Both of these nations had vastly different ideologies regarding government and the economy. As these two nations struggled to gain increased power and influence globally it seemed almost inevitable that yet another war would ensew. Yet matters were complicated by what had originally been an American super weapon- the atomic bomb which first tests were conducted in 1945. This atomic bomb technology had been stolen by the soviets and each side now possessed enough of these deadly weapons to end the world. As such neither side could choose to directly confront one another as such as action would almost certainly bring about M.A.D. Simalutanly the waning influence of the French and British empires led to numerous liberation movements globally in which various groups fought for control of the former colonies. Such an environment fostered much concern and brought about the American policy of Containment. Containment was a policy originally devised by U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan. Kennan had long observed the soviet union and was aware of the desire of the Soviet Union to expand and become a global empire through the use of Marxist satellite states and allies. Kennan theodore established the basis of containment which involved effectively stopping the formation of new communist nations (with military force if necessary) in order to subvert soviet influence whilst simultaneously avoiding a potential nuclear war.
The Stability of Russia in 1914 In 1914 Russia's stability was questionable; the Tsar's regime had been under considerable strain due to the unsuccessful uprising in 1905. The Tsar still had the support of the army, which helped to put down many attempts at revolution. However, there was still brewing resentments about the harsh conditions of the Tsar's government that threatened to explode at any time.
18.1) Assess the view that the disagreements about the Second Front were the most significant cause of tension between Russian and the West between 1941 and 1945.
The first feature “Basic feature of Post-War Soviet outlook” in which Kennan believed that the Soviet Union has international intentions he describes as “capitalist encirclement”. Kennan mentions that socialist centers will draw countries that are in favor of socialism and capitalist centers will draw countries that are in favor of capitalism. Kennan says “Battle between these two centers for command of world economy will decide fate of capitalism and of communism in entire world" (Kennan 1946). He believes the USSR is using any opportunity to gain strength and did not want to co-exist with a capitalist world. Capitalism and Communism are opposed to one another to the Soviet Union.
According to Daina Stukuls this was led by the devastation it did to the civilian population in the three countries. For example, Latvia population before the war was 2.5 million and by the end of the war it plummeted to 1.58 million (p.232). During this time some in the Baltic States supported the Bolshevik revolution. However, others wanted an independent state especially in Latvia. While others in Latvia specifically the German population wanting to unify with Germany. However, the fight for independence was won by the nationalist with help from the British. All three Baltic countries declared their independence in
In the post-war period, Latvia was compelled to embrace Soviet cultivating techniques and the financial base created in the and was killed. Country territories were constrained into collectivisation. The enormous deluge of workers, managers, military staff and their wards from Russia and other Soviet republics began. By about persons touched base from other Soviet republics and the ethnic Latvian populace had tumbled to . A broad system to force bilingualism was started in Latvia, constraining the utilization of Latvian dialect for Russian. The greater part of the minority schools were shut down leaving just two dialects of guidelines in the schools-Latvian and Russian. The Russian dialects were taught outstandingly, and additionally Russian
Emerging victoriously from World War II, America became the leader of the free-market capitalist world, and proved to be a military, economic, and political powerhouse. However, as one major war came to a close, another battle was brewing between the democratic United States and the communist Soviet Union. As the Soviet Union expanded farther West into Europe, America as well as its NATO allies worked together in an effort to contain the USSR’s expanding communist party. The Cold War went far beyond a battle between different ideologies. Rather, it developed into a global conflict where espionage, treason, and massive propaganda campaigns were inflicted on all aspects of individuals’ lives internationally. The plausibility of communism seeping into the confinements of the United States caused nation-wide fear to erupt. American businesses feared the idea of a communistic revolution on the basis that it would disturb the very groundwork that holds capitalism together. As a result, the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was formed to investigate communist and fascist organizations within America. Unfortunately, the controversial tactics used during the HUAC hearings contributed to the fear, blacklisting, and repression that existed from 1940 through the 1950s. In the midst of the Cold War, several American opinions materialized concerning the role of the HUAC, in which Americans either praised the committee for its patriotic ideals, applauded but recognized the
This pact prevented Hitler, “From seeking the goal of German foreign policy in the one and only place possible: space in the east.” Gaining Lebensraum for Germany’s surplus population was one motive for Hitler’s attack into the Soviet Union in 1941, but there were also other reasons behind the attack.
The Soviet Union was becoming increasingly more and more worried about the influence of the West in Germany. It was convinced that Germany’s neutrality was vastly important to the security of Russia. In response to the talks on March 6, the Soviets temporarily restricted the movement of Western military supplies
After the defeating of Poland in September 1939, Russia wanted to extend its influ-ence over the Baltic and forced Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia to sign treaties that allowed Russia to establish military bases in each of the three Baltic Countries. Next, the USSR, took advantage of its non-aggression pact with Germany to make several far-reaching demands on Finland in order to recover former territory lost after the World War I. Finland refused so the Winter War started. After the World War I, the Soviet Union started to build its Arctic capabilities, improving the conditions of Murmansk Port and building the White Canal connecting Baltic Sea and Arctic Ocean. Finland was important part of Soviet plans for development Arctic capabilities and the Northern part of Norway as well. After the winter war, Finland expected protection and support from the Allies side, but it was effectively blocked by Soviet and German activities. This resulted in Finland being drawn closer to Germany, first as a counterbalance to prevent current Soviet pressure and later to help regain lost
The Russo-Finnish War, or Winter War, began on 30 November 1939 when the Soviet Union invaded Finland. The objectives of the Red Army were simply, conquer and subjugate all of Finland and re-establish the borders that existed prior to the First World War. The Soviet Union held the advantage in manpower, equipment, and resources, but the Finnish Army inflicted casualties on the Red Army that far exceeded their own. Not a single Red Army unit reached its initial objectives and Stalin was forced to come to the negotiation table and make a peace that left Finland as a sovereign state. The Finnish military was successful because the Red Army lacked competent leadership, didn’t have the proper equipment to fight in subzero temperatures, and the Finnish Army was able to adapt to a changing environment and use their smaller numbers to their advantage. The gaping holes in Soviet military capabilities helped fuel Hitler’s willingness to initiate Operation Barbarossa. Additionally, by invading Finland the Soviet Union turned a disinterested and essentially neutral into an enemy that had the capabilities to strike into the heart of Russia.
Russia, known by most as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia. Russia is the largest country in the world at 17,075,200 square kilometres by surface area, covering more than one eighth of Earth 's inhabited land, and the ninth most populous, with over 146.6 million people as of end of March 2016. The European western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the East, with almost eight-tenths of the population living within the European region of Russia. Russia 's capital, Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe and the world. Its ohter major urban cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara.