Comparative Advantage: Challenges
Saudi Electronic University Comparative Advantage: Challenges
The Smith’s original theory of comparative advantage is commonly used to describe international trade and support the need for free trade policies. The theory uses the concept comparative advantages in production to show the logic of specialization in production and use of resources. But despite the benefits associated with comparative advantages, free trade policies are usually questioned, and nations try to avoid full specialization in their production. Palley’s observation on the modern international market contrasts Smith’s original theory, by showing that it does not consider new international market realities.
Smith’s original theory on international trade follows the concept of division of labor at the local level and supports free international trade to maximize production and benefits for all. His view is that division of labor is related to production, where an advanced division of labor is directly related to increased and cost-effective production (Schumacher, 2012). As a result, it is possible to produce …show more content…
The observation is that though there are gains in international trade, countries can suffer from further specialization as their gains from globalization decline. Palley’s view contrasts Smith’s original theory by showing the challenges of continued globalization and international free trade on individual nations. The original comparative advantage theory fails to capture the new realities created by globalization in international trade. The technology mobility from one nation to another negates the need for specialization and production of surplus because markets can satisfy their needs. Additionally, the transfer of technology is influenced by
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According to Colander, "The reason two countries trade is that trade can make both countries better off" (2004, p. 416). In economics, the theory of comparative advantage clarifies why it can be advantageous for two countries to trade, even though one of them may be able to produce every kind of item more cheaply than the other. What matters is not the absolute cost of production, but instead, the ratio between how easily the two countries can produce different kinds of goods. The basic idea of the principle of comparative advantage is that as long as the relative opportunity costs of producing goods differ among countries, then there are potential gains from trade.
Comparative advantage in economics is when a country can produce a good at a lower opportunity cost relative to other producers. It is because of this theory that output will increase because a producers within a country specializes Countries will gain the ability to maximize their efficiency and their labor force which facilitates mass-production of products, resulting in higher profits and international trade. This is because the economies of scale reduces overall cost, by producing more units. If the two countries moved towards protectionism and attempted to become self-sufficient then the production of goods would then
Nations trade with one another because it is mutually advantageous for both parties when one is more efficient at producing a certain good and at a lower cost, and the other is proficient at producing a different good or service more efficiently. This is based on Ricaro’s theory of comparative advantage.
units, and Smith illustrates that a system of fair and accessible trade is necessary for an
However, it was apparent to economists that nations with similar resource endowments exchanged similar products with each other. Economists felt that trade explained solely by comparative advantage was an incomplete analysis of international trade. Furthermore, since the classical trade theory was unable to explain intraindustry trade, economists decided to expand on the classical trade theory by creating a new theory of trade (Carbaugh, 2011). The new theory states that economies of scale provide incentive for a country to specialize in a particular product (Carbaugh, 2011). Furthermore, based on economies of scale, nations with similar factor endowments will trade with each other as sometimes it is beneficial (Carbaugh, 2011). Arguments stemming from this new trade theory puts the economic case for free trade in doubt.
The Ricardian trade model is a simple yet powerful theory that refutes common fallacies about the causations of trade flows. It illustrates that, instead of absolute advantage, it is comparative advantage that brings forth the gains from trade. Comparative advantage refers to the ability to produce a product at a lower opportunity cost than another. This ability is the result of
The country can maximize their wealth by putting the resources in the most competitive industries. Government created comparative advantage rather than free trade because now easier moves the production processes and the machines into countries that can produce more goods (Yeager & Tuereck, 1984). However, many countries now move to new trade theory suggests the ability firms to limit the number of competitors associated with economic scale (reduction of costs with a large scale of output) (Krugman, 1992). The comparative advantage occurs when two-way trade in identical products, it will useful where economic scale is important, but it will create problem with this model. As a result, government must intervene in international trade for protection to domestic firms (Krugman, 1990)
Countries are enabled by free international trade to specialise or to focus in the production of the goods in which they have a comparative advantage. Specialisation countries can take the benefit of efficiencies generated from increased output and economies of trade. The size of the firm’s market are increased by the international trade which results in lower average costs and increasing in productivity, as it ultimately leads to increase in production.
Trade freedom is a highly important factor in determining economic freedom and wealth. No one single country has the resources required to sustain the current standards of living in developed or developing nations. Trade requires specialization according to a country’s comparative advantage. Specialization allows the most efficient and effective use of a country’s scarce resources, whether that be natural resources or labor resources. The Index shows the economic benefits of specialization and trade.
The theory of comparative advantage explains the benefit of free trade. According to this theory by David Ricardo in the early 19th century, “Both countries will be better off if each specializes in the industry where it has a comparative advantage, and if the two trade with one another.” (Citation) International trade opens up markets to foreign supplier, and domestic companies need to improve their efficiency, boost productivity, and lower cost to increase competitiveness instead of enjoying monopolies or oligopolies that enabled them to keep prices well above marginal costs. On the other hand, international trade also offers domestic companies bigger demands and broader markets; therefore more jobs relevant to export have been created. Furthermore, jobs in the US supported by goods exports pay 13-18 percent more than the US national average (ustr.gov).
Adam Smith, author of The Wealth of Nations, shows support for free trade and emphasises it as a trade policy which ought to be adopted. Krugman and Obstfeld back Smith's support by stating that the efficiency of trade is increased by free trade and accumulates the national income of countries. Free trade is a theory which suggests that each nation benefits in specialising in an economic activity from which it gains absolute advantage, enjoying absolute superiority over other nations in a specif economical activity (Peng). With free trade follows opportunity, replacing regulation and growth of economic activity. (Rugmann and Collinson).
International macroeconomics is the study of how nations cooperate through trade of goods and services, through movements of money and by investment based on the idea that resources are less transportable internationally than goods. During the semester, we learned that a primary motivation behind a nation’s participation in international trade is the belief that resources are not circulated equally among all trading nations. International trade is the structure where upon American wealth rests. International trade is the structure upon which American prosperity resides. Free trade policies have produced a level of competition in today 's open market that stimulates recurrent improvement leading to superior products, better-paying
The concept of absolute advantage is one of the most fundamental areas of concern in the study of economics. In its basic meaning, absolute advantage refers to the ability of one individual or party to produce more of a particular good or service than other competitors given the same amount of resources. In this regard, absolute advantage becomes a very important aspect in the concept of international trade as it clearly defines the different areas where countries should specialize in order to maximize their productivity and enhance international trade. The principle of absolute advantage was first elucidated by Adam Smith in his study of international trade using labor and capital as the only factor inputs(Free, 2010).
Comparative advantage is a principle developed by David Ricardo in the early 19th century to explain the benefits of mutual trade (Carbaugh, 2008). Many underlying assumptions of comparative advantage depend on states of economic equilibrium and an absence of economy of scale. In reality, economies are dynamic and subject to innovation and interference; which has led to revised assumptions of return and competition (Krugman, 1987). These factors have created questions of free trade and governmental participation in an economy by the development of strategic trade policies. These new concepts do not replace the theory of comparative advantage; however, they further explain how trade can benefit a country's economy (Krugman, 1987).
Any country should use porter diamond theory of national advantage. It's designed to help understand the competitive advantage nations. It suggests that the national home base of any organizations are playing a supportive role in shaping the size or scoop to which it is likely to achieve advantage on a global scale. This home base provides basic factors, which support organizations from building advantages in international competition. Porter classifies four determinants: Factor Condition, Diamond Condition, Relatives & supporting and Structure, strategy & Rivalry. Egypt government acts to catalysts to improve Egypt position in a globally competitive economic environment. They found that they can create new factors such as skilled labor and high technology (Porter M., 1990). Porter's diamond model suggests threat there are inherent reasons why some nations are more competitive than others on an international market. Another factor that influence in competitive advantages such as the policies that put by government. One of the most influencer policies is (FDI) Foreign direct investment