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The Song Dynasty : China

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The Song dynasty gave China many of the qualities that many outsiders see as being distinctly Chinese, such as tea and rice, unique architecture, Confucian thought, and much more. The Song dynasty reestablished unity and made China the wealthiest, most skilled, and most populated country in the world. The Song dynasty is considered such a significant period in Chinese history because it moved China into the modern era with lasting changes in many aspects of Chinese civilization.
Introduction to the Song Dynasty The Song dynasty began in 960CE and lasted until 1279CE. It followed the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period and was succeeded by the Yuan dynasty. The Song dynasty is divided into two periods, the Northern Song and the Southern Song. The Northern Song lasted from 960CE to 1127CE, when the capital was in the city of Bianjing in modern day Kaifeng, and the Song controlled most of China proper. The Southern Song existed from 1127CE to 1279CE and signifies the period following the loss of control of northern China to the Jurchen Jin during the Jin – Song Wars. During the Southern Song period, the Song court fled south of the Yangtze and made a new capital at Lin’an, modern day Hangzhou. Despite its loss of the birthplace of China’s civilization beside the Yellow River, the Southern Song still had 60 percent of the Chinese population and the majority of the best agricultural lands, which kept the economy from falling to ruin. In 1234, the Mongols conquered the Jin,
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