The Theory Of The Glass Ceiling Metaphor Essay

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Theoretical perspectives
Several theories have been utilized to guide research exploring the glass ceiling metaphor. The social role theory explains the labor division between men and women and the difference in their leadership style (Sabharal, 2015). Men are regarded as more agentic- aggressive, dominant, and independent. Women behaviors are more communal- empathetic, nurturing and kind. This theory posits that individuals might question the capacity of women in leadership roles, because requirements of leadership contradict the social role of women (Sabharwal, 2015). Because men majorly occupy leadership roles, it is largely assumed that leadership demands male-like personas. Therefore, women are judged less favorably when seeking management positions. Moreover, managers are less likely to promote women because of their social responsibility as mothers, which ascribe the primary responsibility of family (Sabharwal, 2015). Role incongruity and the perpetuating masculine stereotype contribute to the challenges women face in leadership positions (Sabharwal, 2015).
The social exclusion theory, first used in France, has also been applied to the study of the glass ceiling. Across disciplines of education, sociology, psychology, politics and economics, this theory examines the disadvantages of marginalized groups in societies. The theory contends that groups of people are systematically blocked from certain rights, opportunities and resources normally afforded to members of a

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