Background The United States health care public safety net system largely provides healthcare services to the uninsured and the under insured. However, this vulnerable population still cannot access adequate care and compared to the privately insured population, the uninsured receive less preventative and specialty health care services. The need for safety net providers to improve the delivery and access to care has led to increased funding through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) as well the expanded community health centers (CHCs) (HealthCare.gov, 2010). Following the passage of the PPACA and increased federal support for the CHCs, the American public health care system witnessed significant changes. Some of these changes include increased access to healthcare, restructurings of private health coverages and containing Medicaid and Medicaid (). One of the key provisions of the PPACA was to extend health care coverage to the uninsured population in the country. Among the most affected are the safety net providers whose sole objective is to provide healthcare services to the uninsured Americans. These providers of last resort have played a critical role in ensuring that even the most vulnerable persons access basic healthcare. Nevertheless, as previous research has shown, access to preventative and specialty care among the uninsured still remains a challenge. Very few studies have identified how safety net providers have impacted maternal and infant
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The U.S. health care system faces challenges that indicate that the people urgently need to be reform. Attention has rightly focused on the approximately 46 million Americans who are uninsured, and on the many insured Americans who face rapid increases in premiums and out-of-pocket costs. As Congress and the Obama administration consider ways to invest new funds to reduce the number of Americans without insurance coverage, we must simultaneously address shortfalls in the quality and efficiency of care that lead to higher costs and to poor health outcomes. To do otherwise casts doubt on the feasibility and sustainability of coverage expansions and also ensures that our current health care system will continue to have large gaps even for those with access to insurance coverage.
Health System Reform in the United States: Impact of Rising Premiums and Opportunities for System Improvements to Enhance Access to Healthcare Services
Department of Health & Human Services, 2015). These provisions were aimed at providing new protections for health insurance consumers, lowering the cost and improving the quality of health care, and increasing access to health insurance and affordable care. While many of the ACA’s provisions had implications for community health centers, the ones that impacted them most directly were the expansion of Medicaid and availability of subsidized health insurance through exchanges and the creation of the Community Health Center Fund, which allocated $11 billion in new funding through fiscal year 2015 for operations, capital projects, and expansion of services to enable community health centers to serve an anticipated 20 million newly insured patients (National Association of Community Health Centers, n.d.; “Valley Community Healthcare,” 2015).
rehend the PPACA, one must understand the history of the United States’ health care system. The most successful and known reform would be the passage of Medicare and Medicaid. President Johnson’s main objective with his program was to provide health insurance to those over 65 years old, who otherwise wouldn’t be able to receive coverage due to retirement or being financially unfit to purchase health insurance. It has since been expanded to cover those with disabilities, and lower income families (“Overview,” 2015). Brady (2015) examines President Clinton’s attempt to massively overhaul health care in the United States. His plan, the Health Security Act (HSA), required employers to offer health insurance to their employees, and mandated that every US citizen purchase health insurance. This plan would have most likely expand health insurance to many more Americans; however, many feared the large tax increases, restricted options for patients, and with the lack of general support for the bill, it failed in Congress and was never implemented (p. 628). President Clinton’s failed attempt at health care reform opened up the door to future reforms, and it even shared multiple similarities to the PPACA. Smith (2015) updates the history of the health care system in America stating that “In the mid-2000s, America’s uninsured population swelled to nearly 47 million, representing about 16 percent of the population” and how “16 million Americans […] were underinsured” (p. 2). People
The rapidly rising cost of health care in the United States has made access to medical care difficult for many citizens. Additionally, the number of uninsured is increasing because of job loss and reduction of employee benefits. This trend is projected to continue. The negative effect of reduced access to health care may have alarming effects on the economic well-being of the nation. The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) marks the beginning of significant transformation in the United States’ health care systems. After multiple attempts to reform health care over the years, the nation’s leaders have succeeded in pushing through this landmark legislation that will ensure most Americans will have access to
After the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted in 2010, much of the uninsured population in the United States were finally given the access to health insurance (Shi & Singh, 2015). Prior to the passing of the Act, those who did not have insurance still managed to seek medical attention, whether paying for medical care out of their own pockets or seeking the assistance of government programs. As reported by the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2013, 13.4% of the population in the U.S. were uninsured during the entire year (Smith & Medalia, 2014). Still, a great number of uninsured who sought medical care were unable to pay for those services, this is referred as uncompensated care. In 2013 the cost incurred from
Upon further examination of the Health Care Safety Net Increased Eligibility Amendment Act of 2005, the following latent goals were established. The act’s first latent function is to decrease discrimination amongst services rendered to individuals based on health status, gender or income. Also, the act serves to sustain a healthy American population by encouraging people to seek medical/health care by creating and providing access to these services. Finally, the last latent goal of the Health Care Safety Net Increased Eligibility Amendment Act of 2005 serves as a benefit to the federal government’s health care system spending as the act serves to improve the health of society. Therefore, the act
Throughout the early 1980’s and 1990’s the Federal Medicaid program was challenged by rapidly rising Medicaid program costs and an increasing number of uninsured population. One of the primary reasons for the overall increase in healthcare costs is the
It has been six years since the Affordable Care Act has been implemented into the United States healthcare system. As the pieces and provisions of this monumental federal statute become understood and executed, it is transforming the demand for care. Prior to the ACA, a significant number of Americans were marginalized and unable to obtain coverage. This system was faced increasing healthcare costs, placing greater financial strain to everyday Americans, businesses, and public health insurance systems. The ACA did not only help ensure health coverage for all (almost
One of this health care’s programs objective is to limit the number of uninsured (Shi & Singh, 2015). This controversial healthcare plan incorporates a privately funded insurance which is paid for through employment and solely by the patient and a publicly funded insurance by the government. Medicare is provided for senior citizens 65 and older, and Medicaid is provided for low income citizens. The federal government and state government both partake in the funding of Medicaid. Although insurance is provided to the low income through Medicaid, the United States continues to suffer from cost escalation spending 17.1 percent of GDP on healthcare in 2013, a 50 percent more than the second nation (Commonwealth, n.d.) The high cost and limited coverage continues to spark up the conversation for a
Health care in the United States is driven by a patchwork of services and financing. Americans access health care services in a variety of ways — from private physicians’ offices, to public hospitals, to safety-net providers. This diverse network of health care providers is supported by an equally diverse set of funding streams. The United States spends almost twice as much on health care as any other country, topping $2 trillion each year. (WHO.INT 2000) However, even with overall spending amounting to more than $7,400 per person, millions of individuals cannot access the health care services they need.(Foundation 2009) So when the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (a.k.a the Affordable Care Act or ACA) was passed in the summer
In 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was passed. The PPACA grants all legal residents in the United States access to health insurance. The PPACA is accommodated by expanding Medicaid, establishing tax credits for small business owners to cover insurance for their employees, and through state-offered “marketplaces” where citizens can buy insurance if they aren’t offered insurance elsewhere (Ranji, Salganicoff, Sobel & Rosenzweig, 2017). The goal of this act was to lower federal government spending by increasing access to preventative care with the hope that it will reduce the amount of costly emergency room visits. The PPACA not only has affected many
The United States has a unique system of healthcare delivery, it is complex and massive. Twenty-five years ago; American citizens had guaranteed insurance, meaning the patient could see any physician and the insurance companies and patients would share the cost. But today, 187.4 million Americans have private health insurance coverage (Medicaid, 2014). The subsystems of American health care delivery are Managed care, military, vulnerable populations and integrated delivery
There is an ongoing debate regarding the potency of the new health care reform—Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act—from the outset of its proposal. Many attempts had been presented in the past years but the root of the issue remains prevalent today, that there is a lack of quality in its delivery and the cost of care is continuously increasing beyond national economic edges. In this manuscript, we will discuss several factors that can positively sway the long-term significance, impact, and structure of the United States health care system. Many are wondering whether the Universal Coverage, to which will give more control and
The paramount idea I am advocating is this; the safety and health of the public are put at risk if the same kind of people keeps political power in the future. Consequently what I mean is a person with no engineering background or similar trades in positions of power chose not to act in the best interest of the public when their careers are on the line.  The world is changing at a blinding pace; the challenges of global warming, population growth, and rapidly advancing technology, are behemoth problems the general public needs help to tackle, and engineers to rise to their public duty.  Moreover I believe the threats to humanity will overwhelm the political structure we currently have unless engineers are at the helm to meet them and dislodge those in power. What made me believe this somewhat radical idea is there are several human-made disasters we have covered in the class discussion, caused by people with little to no engineering experience making engineering decisions and catastrophe and appealing resulting from those decisions.