Art Therapy after Disaster Lori A. Davis Current Trends in Art Therapy Professor Orr July 3, 2015 Abstract The use of art therapy after a disaster is an emerging approach to dealing with trauma. Disaster can result from natural events, manmade events, personal events, or a combination of any of these. Adults, families, and communities go through considerable suffering during disaster and deal with many trauma related symptoms and issues. Children experience trauma in dissimilar ways and are usually helped the least. Adult treatment procedures, in some respects, are similar to those for children. However, they have distinctions. Group therapy has been found beneficial for all survivors. Art therapy for adults, …show more content…
al, 2014). Individuals who have experienced a traumatic event often experience psychological stress. This is believed to be a common reaction to an unusual situation. However, it can be much worse. There are issues that influence how severe and how long the trauma lasts. They include how strong the threat to life was felt; how strong the bereavement and loss was; how long and sever were the stressors; how long was the displacement from the familiar; how death, injury, destruction, and social disruption was handled; how the moral issues were treated; and what were the aftereffects for the community (Gonzalez-Dolginko, 2001). After a disaster, an individuals may feel that they are unable to regain control of their life. The symptoms may be experienced for a long time. This may result in the need to seek professional help. The DSM IV of the APA (2001) describes symptoms or behaviors that may occur. The list includes repeated thoughts or nightmares, trouble sleeping, changes in eating, increased anxiety, intense fear, over-alertness. There can also be overwhelming depression, low energy, memory lapses, feeling “scattered”, numbness, inability to focus. The inability to face the trauma and an avoidance of the event can also be seen. Children have been found to be one of the least helped after a disaster. The symptoms that children may exhibit can include depression, anxiety, aggression, regression, and/or withdraw. They can also be
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There are several different assessments that can be used for victims of trauma to determine the level of stress and if a victim is suffering from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The best results will occur if the clinical work is directed at the symptoms expressed by the resulting trauma. When assessing the treatment plan, “the psychic injury caused by the event and its impact on the survivor’s normal life patterns and his or her worldview must be accounted for” (Everstine & Everstine, 2006, p.161). A person
This paper explores post-traumatic stress and how it is seen as a disorder. Post-traumatic stress can manifest into post-traumatic stress disorder. According to Sareen (2014), Post-traumatic stress disorder is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-5 as having 4 core features that are as follows. First, the person must witness or experience a stressful event. Secondly, the person or persons would re-experience symptoms of the event that include nightmares and/or flashbacks. The person or persons would also have hyper arousal symptoms, such as concentrations problems, irritability, and sleep disturbance. The final core feature dictates
Describing a psychological or mental health response following exposure to a traumatic event has become an unachievable goal since there is no response to it. It is apparent that there are individual differences in resilience and risk factors that play a crucial role in response to potentially traumatic event and prevent a description of a response to an event that would affect people uniformly. During the course of a normal life span, most people at different times in their lives are confronted with the adverse events such as the death of a close friend or relative (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, & Nelson, 1995).
Post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) is one of the leading mental issues in the world right now. It includes introduction to injury including passing or the danger of death, genuine damage, or sexual brutality. Something is traumatic when it is exceptionally startling, overpowering and causes a considerable measure of pain. Injury is regularly sudden, and numerous individuals say that they felt feeble to stop or change the occasion. Traumatic occasions might incorporate wrongdoings, common fiascos, mishaps, war or strife, or different dangers to life. It could be an occasion or circumstance that one encounters or something that transpires, including friends and family. The post-traumatic stress is not subject to any definite experience a priori,
It is normal, following a traumatic experience, for a person to feel disconnected, anxious, sad and frightened. However, if the distress does not fade and the individual feels stuck with a continuous sense of danger as well as hurting memories, then that person might in fact be suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PSTD could develop after a traumatic incident which threatens one’s safety or makes one to feel helpless (Dalgleish, 2010). Coping with traumatic events could be very difficult, but confronting one’s feelings and seeking professional assistance is usually the only way to properly treat PSTD. Many kids and adolescents worldwide experience events that are traumatizing. If exposure to trauma is not treated, it could lead to various mental health problems. Researchers have reported a connection between traumatization and increases in mood and anxiety disorders, but the most frequently reported symptoms of psychological distress are post-traumatic stress symptoms (Cohen, Mannarino & Iyengar, 2011).
The term “Psychological trauma” refers to damage wrought from a traumatic event, which that damages one’s ability to cope with stressors. “Trauma” is commonly defined as an exposure to a situation in which a person is confronted with an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to self or others’ physical well-being (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Specific types of client trauma frequently encountered by which therapists and other mental health workers frequently encounter in a clinical setting include sexual abuse, physical , or sexual assault, natural disasters such as earthquakes or tsunamis, domestic violence, and school or/and work related violence (James & Gilliland, 2001). Traumatic
This paper will define The Effects of Trauma and Crisis on Clients and Mental Health Counselors and give a brief overview on how these Natural and man-made disasters, crises, and other trauma-causing events have become a focus of the clinical mental health counseling profession. Due to the extreme trauma that children, adolescents and adult experience after a traumatic event it, is noted that most individuals that are exposed to traumatic experience usually develop major depression, generalized anxiety, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) later in
Major natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and floods often precipitate sudden emergencies, which have significant impact on all domains of life for affected populations. Children are a particularly vulnerable group to the effects of natural disasters, with unique physical, developmental, and psychosocial characteristics that place them at high risk for adverse outcomes (Murray, 2011). Some of the consequences for children after natural disasters include physical insecurity, poor living conditions and displacement, and disruption to community life. Numerous children may also be left orphaned after the loss of one or both parents. The aftermath of natural disasters place children at risk for adverse physical but
Art as a therapeutic method was my primary focus throughout the psychology program at Ryerson University. I am familiar with much research regarding art therapy for mental disorders such as depression
Children have multiple or prolonged exposure to trauma, experience various symptoms and reactions, and long for progressive techniques to heal their pain.
Trauma is an individual’s visceral reaction to a horrible event, events such as early childhood traumas, accidents, sexual abuse, or community violence (apa.org, 2016). An individual may react with shock and denial in the aftermath. As time continues some reactions may comprise of mood swings, intrusive memories, difficulties maintaining relationships and can manifest into physical symptoms to include headache or upset stomach. There are individuals who experience difficulties functioning in their daily lives; these observable responses are a normal response to the trauma (apa.org, 2016).
Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is sometimes considered to be a relatively new diagnosis, as it first appeared in 1980, the concept of the disorder has a long history. That has often been linked to the history of war, but the disorder has also been frequently described in natural disasters, mass catastrophes, and serious accidental injuries. The diagnosis first appeared in terminology when Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-I was published in 1952 under the name “Gross stress reaction”. It was misplaced, however, in the next edition in 1968, after a long period of next peace. When DSM-III was developed in the mid-1980s the recent
However, art therapy is typically the most in psychiatric wards, either individually or in groups. It is currently emerging is family art therapy, and used a lot in the education system, focusing on children who are learning disabled, mentally challenged, emotionally disturbed, socially disadvantaged. According to the AATA, art therapy is practiced in mental health, rehabilitation, medical, educational, forensic, wellness, private practice and community settings. Within these settings, art therapy can be applied to an extremely diverse client population in individual, couples, family, and group therapy formats. Art therapy is an effective treatment for people experiencing developmental, medical, educational, and social or psychological impairment. Other individuals who benefit from art therapy include those who have survived trauma resulting from combat, abuse, and natural disaster, along with individuals who have adverse physical health conditions such as cancer, traumatic brain injury, and other health disability, and finally individuals with autism, dementia, depression, and other disorders. Art therapy helps people resolve conflicts, improve interpersonal skills, manage maladaptive behaviors, reduce negative stress, and achieve personal insight. (AATA, 2013) No matter how it is used, all good art therapy leads to both education and growth. It can be beneficial
Expressive arts therapy is the use of art modalities, creative process, and aesthetic experience in a therapeutic context. It is a therapy of the imagination (McNiff, 1992). Effective communication is an essential element in therapeutic relationships and, although verbal language is the most conventional means of conveying information, other forms can convey just as much as words. The arts are an alternative form of communication that has recently received recognition for their value in therapeutic settings. There is a long well-established connection between the arts and psychology. Expressive arts therapy builds on a natural, complimentary relationship between the two disciplines. As a formal therapy, this form is relatively new with its