Jews are a standout amongst the most stereotyped religious social orders ever, with the media every now and again utilizing negative pictures at whatever point they write about Judaism and the Jewish race. History demonstrates that Jews were constrained from their country and turned into an itinerant individuals, spreading all through Europe. Regarded as untouchables in Europe, local people were suspicious of the Jews and made numerous myths and pessimistic generalizations about them which are propagated today. Numerous limitations on callings were put on the Jewish individuals in the medieval times. The Catholic Church and numerous Christians accepted that loaning cash for premium was a wrongdoing and was prohibited. This pushed Jews into cash giving and rent gathering sort occupations which the congregation saw as second rate. This prompted the generalization that Jews are ravenous, shabby, mean and even degenerate.
Although Othello is set in Venice and Cyprus, the attitudes and values shared in the text are probably reflective of the attitudes and values of Shakespeare's own society. It is difficult to assess the attitudes and values of people in sixteenth-century Britain to the relatively few blacks living amongst them. We are given an insight into those attitudes and values through the representation of race and
Discrimination and hatred across religions can be often become a normal part of everyday life, and can be difficult to eradicate and extinguish. In William Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice, the idea of the “normality” of everyday prejudices comes across in interactions and the portrayal of Shylock, a Jewish moneylender in Venice. Through Shylock’s character, Shakespeare provides a commentary on how his society has viewed Judaism in a dehumanizing way for many generations, but also expresses how difficult and not in a playwright’s place to change these societal prejudices.
The issue of race is one filled with controversy and passion, even today in the twenty-first centaury. In today’s day and age it is more shuttle and underground then it was in its most recent ‘hay-day’. In our time today we see it as more of a shameful, offensive and intolerant thing, but it was the norm in the early 15th and 16th century. Today those people that are outwardly racist are seen as outcasts. In this essay I will tempt to show how even though it was the norm in Victorian England, Shakespeare already had another mind set, and was trying in this creative way that the mind set of the people was not correct even for that time. How and why did Shakespeare purposely portray Othello the Moor as a tragic hero, like Hamlet or King
Anti-Semitism is the discrimination against Jewish people as individuals and as a group. (A Brief History of Anti-Semitism) People may think that anti-Semitism began with Adolf Hitler but they are mistaken. There is so much evidence of anti-Semitism as far back as the ancient world. (History.com, n.d.) There are three examples of anti-Semitism in Europe prior to World War One that I will discuss.
Josephus was a first century author who recorded Jewish-Roman history. He was born Jewish, and even fought against the Romans in the first Jewish-Roman war. But after being captured and later freed by the Roman emperor, Joseph was given Roman citizenship. Josephus’ seven-book collection of The Jewish War was written around 75AD. The Jewish War covers Jewish history from the time Jerusalem was captured, to the first war between Jewish and Roman people; the same war he fought in as a Roman citizen against his previous people, the Jews.
Texts and their appropriations reflect the context and values of their times. Within Shakespeare’s Othello and Geoffrey Sax’s appropriation of Othello, the evolution of the attitudes held by Elizabethan audiences and those held by contemporary audiences can be seen through the context of the female coupled with the context of racism. The role of the female has developed from being submissive and “obedient” in the Elizabethan era to being independent and liberated within the contemporary setting. The racism of the first text is overtly xenophobic and natural, whilst the “moor” is unnatural whereas the updated context portrays Othello’s race as natural and racism as unnatural. Therefore these examples show how Shakespeare’s Othello, and it’s
Throughout the history of political parties and factions, none has been so infamous as that of the Nazi party. They were the world’s enemies for a decade in the early twentieth century, and still continue to stir up controversy throughout the world. Understanding what the Nazis believed in, how anti semitism contributed to Nazi beliefs, and if Nazis still exist today helps to conclude why they did certain actions.
Racism has been an inevitable aspect of human society throughout the centuries, from Elizabethan England to “ Separate but equal," here in The United States not too long ago. Shakespeare’s tragic play Othello, portrays a young, and recently married Moor named Othello. His own demise is initiated by various deceits, such as his lofty new position as the Venetian Republic’s army general. During the time Shakespeare lived there was an overall idea of racial superiority among the English against those of color. This prejudice, distrust, and racist ideology set forth by the English onto minorities is apparent throughout the entirety of the play. This then gives a detailed insight into the cultural aspects of racism and manipulation toward those of different and inherently unequal origins, and skin color.
In the 1930s and 1940s Anti Semitism was wide spread in Germany under the Nazi Government. The treatment of Jews in Germany during this time was extremely brutal and harrowing. The human rights abuses against Jewish people in Nazi Germany during the world war two periods are extremely well documented. Anti Semitism ranged from the outlawing of marriage between Jews and gentiles, the Nazi regime sanctioned destruction of Jewish homes and synagogue and of course the holocaust. The holocaust is one of the darkest moments in modern history where approximately six million Jews were killed in extermination camps in Poland which was occupied by Nazi Germany at the time. Anti-Semitism was deeply engrained in the policies, ideology and dogma of the Nazi party in Germany during world war two. Anti-Semitism was no new phenomena in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s. Anti-Semitism in both a religious and racial sense has existed and developed for over 2000 years across
With the rise of anti-Semitism and the pogroms targeting European Jews in the late 1800s, there were many Jewish theorists and practitioners arose to find the ultimate solution for “the Jewish question”. In addition, the derived tension between the personal life of a Jew and the public life amongst secular society was the main challenge facing European Jewry. As a result of the long-term process through which Jews attempted to resolve the tension between their personal and public lives in a secular society wrought with anti-Semitism, the Zionist Movement emerged on the world scene lead by many intellectual and respected key figures. Among them, Theodore Herzl and Ahad Ha’Am were the two most prominent Zionist leaders. They both shared the same idea of nationalism where it was time for all European Jews to unite and be recognized as a nation. Although having a sense of national consciousness to unite the displaced Jews, their visions were completely opposite. The Zionist Idea, a text by Arthur Hertzberg, described their different visions in term of mass evacuation, statehood, religion, and culture.
Determining Whether there is a Presence of Anti-Semitism in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice
Racism seems to be a big concern in Shakespeare’s tragic play, Othello. Because the hero of the play is an outsider, a Moor, we have an idea how blacks were regarded in England, in Elizabethan times. There are many references that bring about the issue of racism from the very beginning to the end. In the tragedy, where Othello is coming from is not mentioned, yet through the descriptions the reader is informed that he belongs to one of the Eastern nationalities such as African, Ottoman Turk or Arab. In this paper I am going to analyze some episodes involving a prejudicial, racist attitude and try to discuss whether Shakespeare was a racist or not. Even though the play is full of offensive definitions of black
William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice is a perplexing story of dark humor, race, religion, identity, love, and justice. Generally, most people understand The Merchant of Venice as a comedy about a bitter and outcasted Jewish moneylender named Shylock who seeks revenge against a Christian merchant who has failed to pay his loan back. However, there are many different perspectives on whether The Merchant of Venice is a comedy or a tragedy depending on one’s views on the difference between race and religion. If one views the story as a comedy, it is a dark comedy full of many problems, especially the controversial subject matter of anti-Semitic attitudes of its Christian characters. If one views it as a tragedy, it is a tragedy that concludes with majority of its characters in a “happy ending”—that is if one agrees that Jessica’s decision of love over betraying her father and giving up her Jewish identity is indeed a happy ending.
Stereotypes for every different religion, ethnicity, culture, and gender exist among the minds of the human race. These typecasts have ruled this world for as long as there has been diversity among people. In Shakespeare’s comedic tragedy, The Merchant of Venice, one prejudice is very central to the theme. The play is dominantly set in Venice, one of the most liberal cities of the Renaissance era. In this place and time period, anti-Semitism is very much in force. The Jewish people are discriminated against and treated terribly by the Christians living in Venice. Shylock, a wealthy Jew, is mercilessly spurned many times by men like Antonio, a Venetian merchant. In contrast to this blind hatred is the longing and lust associated with