Theories Of Resilience

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3.1.2 Resilience theory
The theory of resilience originated from Holling’s (1973) research in the field of ecology in the 1970s. Holing defined resilience as ‘‘a measure of the persistence of systems and of their ability to absorb change and disturbance and still maintain the same relationship between population or state variables” (Holling 1973:14). That is, resilience is the ability of a system to witness change and disturbance and still retain its original form, sustains or maintains the ability of performing its purpose or functions to interrelated elements or structures. The ability of a system to retain its structure or form amidst changes and disturbances stimulates the connection between resilience, innovation and sustainable development. The growth or disturbance of the system can be likened to economic growth or development of the economy as a result of innovation or the introduction of a new product or mode of governance.

Rose and Krausmann (2013) explained the different types of economic resilience from three separate levels which are: microeconomic (individual business or household), meso-economic (individual industry or market) and macroeconomic (combination of all economic unities). The types of
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It was coined by examining the relevance of ‘conservation’ of resources to achieve great sustainable benefits to present and future generations (Eblen & Eblen 1994). During the 1980s the outcome of the World Conservative Strategy and the need to ensure sustainable growth prompted economists to look for ways to proffer solutions to the questions asked by Malthus on how the slow replenishing resources could be used to sustain the ever increasing population; that is, whether the course of economic development can be sustainable or
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