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Theories of Karl Marx

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INTRODUCTION
Karl Marx, also a philosopher was popularly known for his theories that best explained society, its social structure, as well as the social relationships. Karl Marx placed so much emphasis on the economic structure and how it influenced the rest of the social structure from a materialistic point of view. Human societies progress through a dialectic of class struggle, this means that the three aspects that make up the dialectic come into play, which are the thesis, antithesis and the synthesis (Avineri, 1980: 66-69). As a result of these, Marx suggests that in order for change to come about, a class struggle has to first take place. That is, the struggle between the proletariat and the capitalist class, the class that controls
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(Carver, 1992: 55).
During the industrialisation era, the factories were now in desperate need of a minimally educated workforce as a result, mandatory and free educational systems were put into place. This is clear example that shows that the economy was indeed the base for all other structures in the society. The relations of production shapes the superstructure as it consists of the bourgeoisie exploiting the proletariat. The base of the superstructure shapes the superstructure (education, family, religion, mass media, politics etc.) and the superstructure itself legitimizes the base. Law facilitates the need of those who are in power and own the means of production, eg. Apartheid, Group areas act. The society was governed by rules that were made to suit the upper class.
The model formulated by Karl Marx may also face a lot of criticism. It puts a lot of weight, concentration on the economy as a whole and pays so little attention to other very influential structures such as religion, politics, education etc.
EVALUATE MARX’S THEORY OF FALSE CONSCIOUSNESS
Consciousness refers to the human ideas, views and conceptions. Therefore false consciousness means misunderstood or misinterpreted ideas, views or conceptions. In capitalism, both capitalists and workers have incorrect assessments of how the system works and of their role and interest in it; this in itself is false
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