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Tibia Essay

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Background
Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) is an othopaedic procedure to repair rupture of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs. It has also been applied in cats. The canine CCL is a band of tough fibrous tissue that attaches the femur to the tibia. It is attached to the interdylar notch of the tibia at one end and the caudomedial part of the lateral femoral condyle at the other end. It keeps the tibia from sliding cranially beneath the femur when the limb bears weight. It also limits medial rotation of the tibia when the stifle is flexed [1]. These help to prevent the stifle joint from over – extending or rotating.
The rupture of this ligament in dog is not suddenly broken due to excessive trauma, but usually degenerates slowly over
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Material
After the model was imported into Abaqus, the mechanical properties earned from the prior process were assigned to the model. In addition, as the model is assumed as a homogenous structure, then the highest values of all mechanical properties were used as a representative of all structure. These properties are density of 1813 kg/m3, young modulus of 4993 MPa and Poisson coefficient of 0.3 (see figure 4).
Interaction
This part is the most important of the analysis because fissure and fracture cannot be observed without given fracture mechanics. Therefore, the crack propagation of this study can be studied using XFEM method. This method will define the model as a crack domain, but the crack cannot be propagated without crack initiation. A crack tip was placed at the location where the highest stress was concentrated on. In our study, the highest stress was located at cylindrical wall of maquet hole at approximately 225 from X+ axis when determined in XY plane as shown in figure 7. The crack tip is a very thin surface placed on the model associated with the centre of the maquet hole in XY plane. This tip has 0.5 mm. overlap into the cylindrical wall of maquet hole as shown in figure
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